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Bojnec S.,University of Primorska | Ferto I.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Ferto I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Fogarasi J.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics | Fogarasi J.,University of Oradea
China Agricultural Economic Review | Year: 2014

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of institutional quality (IQ) in exporting and importing countries on agro-food exports from the world's leading emerging economies: Brazil, the Russian Federation, India and China (BRIC countries).Design/methodology/approach - Measuring is based on using the gravity trade model and econometric panel data analysis for the period 1998-2009.Findings - Agro-food exports from the BRIC countries, particularly Brazil and China, have increased. The Russian Federation has experienced stagnating and volatile patterns. Brazil and India have strengthened market shares in the existing importing markets, while the Russian Federation has experienced severe deterioration. The export of existing products is more important than of new products. Agro-food exports are positively associated with IQ and the size of the gross domestic product in exporting and importing countries, but negatively with distance.Research limitations/implications - Among IQ variables, the focus is on the indices of legal structure and security of property rights and freedom to trade internationally in agro-food importing countries and the BRIC exporting countries.Practical implications - Different institutions and their quality can affect agro-food exports differently. The impact of institutions is not uniform across product groups.Originality/value - This paper adds the impacts of IQ on agro-food exports. Except for processed products for final household consumption, agro-food exports from the BRIC countries are positively associated with the quality of the legal structure, the security of property rights and the freedom to trade internationally as IQ in exporting and importing countries. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Hamza E.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The value of farm diversification is unquestionable especially in terms of additional income generation, income stability and easing the employment difficulties of agricultural producers; its importance has recently been in the focus of agricultural and rural policies. The research purpose was to describe the situation of farm diversification in Hungary and to analyse the characteristics of diversified farms, as well as to determine which factors influence the extent and direction of diversification. The research method is based on statistical data analysing and questionnaire survey. Contrary to the above my analyses showed that the share of diversified farms is rather low in the small-scale, semi-commercial and part-time farms; its wide scale distribution is hindered by several factors. Based on the analyses I found that in private farms and in corporate farms it is characteristic that farm diversification activities are closely connected to the main activity of the farm, but they are of different type. I could state that the share of diversified farms is more significant in the labour-intensive farms and primarily in commercial farms. The share of young farmers and farmers in active age, qualified and with a full-time job is higher in the diversified and organic farms.

Jambor A.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Ehret-Berczi I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

EU accession has changed the agri-food trade of New Member States, including the vegetables sector. Although comparative advantages have changed considerably during the previous ten years, most studies have focused on industrial products in the literature, with agri-food sectors usually neglected in empirical works. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to analyse the changing structure of comparative advantage of NMS vegetables trade in light of the 10 years of EU membership. Results suggest that EU accession has enhanced the value of trade relations with the EU, though NMS vegetables imports have increased faster than vegetables exports, but the trade balance still exceeds pre-accession levels. Both exports and imports are highly concentrated by product group and trading partner. Results show that revealed comparative advantages have weakened after accession in the sector in all countries analysed. By using a non-parametric Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator to analyse the duration of revealed comparative advantage in NMS vegetables trade, it is clear that accession has radically changed the survival time of vegetables trade, in that revealed comparative advantage is shown not to be persistent over the period analysed. On the whole, results confirm that revealed comparative advantages have weakened after accession and that the vast majority of products had a revealed comparative disadvantage after 2004. Reasons behind these changes are also identified in the paper.

Ehret-Berczi I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics | Nemeth S.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Producers in the vegetable sector are increasingly shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy, and the use of geothermal energy in Hungarian greenhouses has a real future. Although the investment costs for developing a geothermal heating system are relatively high, significantly lower operation costs can be achieved with this type of system than with fossil fuel energy sources. As of 2014, thermal water reinjection is not required in Hungary, which lowers the investment cost of thermal wells, possibly making it more likely for vegetable producers to adopt this technology. Thermal water can be used as a heat source to keep the temperature of a greenhouse at the level required for vegetable production. There are many operating thermal wells in Hungary. Most of these are located in the south of the country, in the same region that has the highest concentration of vegetable production. The present work was designed to present the opportunities of thermal water utilisation in Hungarian greenhouses.

Nemeth S.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics | Ehret-Berczi I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Greenhouse vegetable production is a key sector of horticulture that represents a significant proportion of the production value of horticultural products, and contributes to minimising the amount of imports. Greenhouses growing vegetables account for 5-6% of the total vegetable production area in Hungary, but produce one quarter of the vegetables harvested each year. In greenhouse vegetables, the most important vegetable crop is paprika (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) and the second is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Tomato greenhouse production represents 59% of the total harvested tomato volume. Consumption of fresh tomato was 5.7 kg per capita in 2011; it was the third most popular vegetable after onions and carrots.Our aim was to analyse the cost structure of the Hungarian tomato greenhouse sector. We found significant differences between two types of greenhouse technology in the cost analysis, and that use of geothermal energy for heating contributes to reduction of costs.

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