Eros T.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute |
Bammer V.,Federal Agency for Water Management |
Gyorgy A.I.,Danube Research Institute |
Gyorgy A.I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
And 5 more authors.
River Research and Applications | Year: 2017
Matching habitat typology and ecological assemblages can be useful in environmental management. We examined whether a priori defined riverine sections correspond with distinct fish assemblage types along the >2000 km long course of the Danube River, Europe. We also tested whether different sampling methods (i.e. day and night inshore electric fishing and offshore benthic trawling) provide consistent typological results. Analysis of assemblage similarities, indicator species analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and k-means analyses indicated that fish assemblages of the a priori defined Upper-, Middle and Lower-Danubian sections differed slightly, but within class variability was high. Although indicator species analysis showed that the Upper-Danube belongs to the barbel (Barbus barbus) zone and the Middle- and Lower Danube belong to the bream (Abramis spp) zone, indicator values of the character species were generally low. The NMDS analyses suggested a weak gradient in assemblage structure along the course of the river with relatively high variability between neighbouring sites. K-means analyses revealed that many sampling sites were in a different class than the a priori defined sections, and classifications at other group numbers did not lead to better classification outcome. Overall, the results do not suggest clearly distinguishable assemblage types with distinct boundaries in the potamal section of a great river. Nevertheless, the division of the potamon to smaller sections may explain some variability in fish assemblage structure, and could be used for bioassessment purposes. The study also shows the importance of multihabitat and multigear surveys in the typological assessment of great rivers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bojnec S.,University of Primorska |
Ferto I.,Corvinus University of Budapest |
Ferto I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
Fogarasi J.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Fogarasi J.,University of Oradea
China Agricultural Economic Review | Year: 2014
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of institutional quality (IQ) in exporting and importing countries on agro-food exports from the world's leading emerging economies: Brazil, the Russian Federation, India and China (BRIC countries).Design/methodology/approach - Measuring is based on using the gravity trade model and econometric panel data analysis for the period 1998-2009.Findings - Agro-food exports from the BRIC countries, particularly Brazil and China, have increased. The Russian Federation has experienced stagnating and volatile patterns. Brazil and India have strengthened market shares in the existing importing markets, while the Russian Federation has experienced severe deterioration. The export of existing products is more important than of new products. Agro-food exports are positively associated with IQ and the size of the gross domestic product in exporting and importing countries, but negatively with distance.Research limitations/implications - Among IQ variables, the focus is on the indices of legal structure and security of property rights and freedom to trade internationally in agro-food importing countries and the BRIC exporting countries.Practical implications - Different institutions and their quality can affect agro-food exports differently. The impact of institutions is not uniform across product groups.Originality/value - This paper adds the impacts of IQ on agro-food exports. Except for processed products for final household consumption, agro-food exports from the BRIC countries are positively associated with the quality of the legal structure, the security of property rights and the freedom to trade internationally as IQ in exporting and importing countries. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Mezosi G.,University of Szeged |
Blanka V.,University of Szeged |
Bata T.,University of Szeged |
Ladanyi Z.,University of Szeged |
And 2 more authors.
Open Geosciences | Year: 2016
The changes in rate and pattern of wind erosion sensitivity due to climate change were investigated for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 compared to the reference period (1961-1990) in Hungary. The sensitivities of the main influencing factors (soil texture, vegetation cover and climate factor) were evaluated by fuzzy method and a combined wind erosion sensitivity map was compiled. The climate factor, as the driving factor of the changes, was assessed based on observed data for the reference period, while REMO and ALADIN regional climate model simulation data for the future periods. The changes in wind erosion sensitivity were evaluated on potentially affected agricultural land use types, and hot spot areas were allocated. Based on the results, 5-6% of the total agricultural areas were high sensitive areas in the reference period. In the 21st century slight or moderate changes of wind erosion sensitivity can be expected, and mostly 'pastures', 'complex cultivation patterns', and 'land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation' are affected. The applied combination of multi-indicator approach and fuzzy analysis provides novelty in the field of land sensitivity assessment. The method is suitable for regional scale analysis of wind erosion sensitivity changes and supports regional planning by allocating priority areas where changes in agro-technics or land use have to be considered. © 2016 G. Mezosi et al., published by De Gruyter Open.
Jambor A.,Corvinus University of Budapest |
Ehret-Berczi I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016
EU accession has changed the agri-food trade of New Member States, including the vegetables sector. Although comparative advantages have changed considerably during the previous ten years, most studies have focused on industrial products in the literature, with agri-food sectors usually neglected in empirical works. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to analyse the changing structure of comparative advantage of NMS vegetables trade in light of the 10 years of EU membership. Results suggest that EU accession has enhanced the value of trade relations with the EU, though NMS vegetables imports have increased faster than vegetables exports, but the trade balance still exceeds pre-accession levels. Both exports and imports are highly concentrated by product group and trading partner. Results show that revealed comparative advantages have weakened after accession in the sector in all countries analysed. By using a non-parametric Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator to analyse the duration of revealed comparative advantage in NMS vegetables trade, it is clear that accession has radically changed the survival time of vegetables trade, in that revealed comparative advantage is shown not to be persistent over the period analysed. On the whole, results confirm that revealed comparative advantages have weakened after accession and that the vast majority of products had a revealed comparative disadvantage after 2004. Reasons behind these changes are also identified in the paper.
Hamza E.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014
The value of farm diversification is unquestionable especially in terms of additional income generation, income stability and easing the employment difficulties of agricultural producers; its importance has recently been in the focus of agricultural and rural policies. The research purpose was to describe the situation of farm diversification in Hungary and to analyse the characteristics of diversified farms, as well as to determine which factors influence the extent and direction of diversification. The research method is based on statistical data analysing and questionnaire survey. Contrary to the above my analyses showed that the share of diversified farms is rather low in the small-scale, semi-commercial and part-time farms; its wide scale distribution is hindered by several factors. Based on the analyses I found that in private farms and in corporate farms it is characteristic that farm diversification activities are closely connected to the main activity of the farm, but they are of different type. I could state that the share of diversified farms is more significant in the labour-intensive farms and primarily in commercial farms. The share of young farmers and farmers in active age, qualified and with a full-time job is higher in the diversified and organic farms.
Stauder M.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Jankune Kurthy G.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Juhasz A.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Konig G.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Tunyogine Nechay V.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013
The share of private label sales in the food retail trade has increased remarkably during the past five years in Europe and now account for 10-45% of retail sales. In Hungary, the share of retail store brand products already approaches one quarter of the sales volume in the domestic market. The appearance of store brands and their greater distribution has opened a new chapter in the relationship between producers and traders, which are part competition and part cooperation. A new generation of store brands in Hungary have emerged with the increasing concentration and globalisation of food retailing. Store brands which were previously considered as cooperators are today brand weapons. The retailer's ability to find an ideal balance between manufacturers' brands and store brands is a key factor in business performance. From our research, it is not possible to reach a definite conclusion or to offer one solution for producers in their transactions with retailers. The situation differs from region to region, from country to country, and by the commercial structure: i.e., by product group and products. The only conclusion that we can make is that a retailer's decision to produce private label products depends on the company's own intrinsic abilities and strategic objectives. Furthermore, the decision must take into account the market situation, demand and opportunities.
Nemeth S.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Ehret-Berczi I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Greenhouse vegetable production is a key sector of horticulture that represents a significant proportion of the production value of horticultural products, and contributes to minimising the amount of imports. Greenhouses growing vegetables account for 5-6% of the total vegetable production area in Hungary, but produce one quarter of the vegetables harvested each year. In greenhouse vegetables, the most important vegetable crop is paprika (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) and the second is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Tomato greenhouse production represents 59% of the total harvested tomato volume. Consumption of fresh tomato was 5.7 kg per capita in 2011; it was the third most popular vegetable after onions and carrots.Our aim was to analyse the cost structure of the Hungarian tomato greenhouse sector. We found significant differences between two types of greenhouse technology in the cost analysis, and that use of geothermal energy for heating contributes to reduction of costs.
Ehret-Berczi I.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics |
Nemeth S.,Research Institute of Agricultural Economics
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Producers in the vegetable sector are increasingly shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy, and the use of geothermal energy in Hungarian greenhouses has a real future. Although the investment costs for developing a geothermal heating system are relatively high, significantly lower operation costs can be achieved with this type of system than with fossil fuel energy sources. As of 2014, thermal water reinjection is not required in Hungary, which lowers the investment cost of thermal wells, possibly making it more likely for vegetable producers to adopt this technology. Thermal water can be used as a heat source to keep the temperature of a greenhouse at the level required for vegetable production. There are many operating thermal wells in Hungary. Most of these are located in the south of the country, in the same region that has the highest concentration of vegetable production. The present work was designed to present the opportunities of thermal water utilisation in Hungarian greenhouses.