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Fort M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Grimalt J.O.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Querol X.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Casas M.,Research Institute IMIM | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Antimony and copper are common components of brake linings. The occurrence of these two metals in urban atmospheric aerosols has been related to vehicular use. Urine samples (n = 466) taken during the 32nd week of pregnancy were analyzed for Sb and Cu in pregnant women from an urban area (Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain). The geometric mean levels were 0.28 and 13. μg/g creatinine, respectively. Positive significant associations between urine concentrations of Sb and seasonality, intensity of physical exercise, working activities and traffic intensity at their home streets were observed. Cu showed the same trends but without statistical significance. In both cases, the estimated dietary ingestion of these two metals was larger than the inhalation inputs but the difference was much higher for Cu than for Sb. While Sb has no dietary role, Cu is an essential element which is also incorporated into humans through diet. The results suggest that inhalation of atmospheric particles may also constitute a source of Sb in pregnant women and general population of urban areas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fort M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Cosin-Tomas M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Grimalt J.O.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Querol X.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Prenatal exposure to trace metals, whether they are essential, non-essential, or toxic, must be assessed for their potential health effects in the offspring. Herein is reported an approach to this end which involved collection of urine samples during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy from 489 mothers from Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain), a highly industrialized town. These samples were analyzed for cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), antimonium (Sb), cesium (Cs), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). An acid digestion method was developed and validated for inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) analysis of these 12 metals. The median concentrations of metals ranged from 0.13 to 290 μg/g creatinine, the highest levels were found for Zn and the lowest for Th. The mean concentrations of most metals except As, Ni, Th, and Pb showed statistically significant differences between both trimesters. The concentrations of Mo, Se, Cd, Cs, and Sb were higher in the first than in the third trimester, whereas the opposite was found for Co, Cu, and Zn. The concentrations of all metals in both sampling periods showed statistically significant correlations (p < 0.01 for Mo and Cu, p < 0.001 for the others). The significant correlations of metal urine concentrations in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy suggest that the observed differences between both periods are related to physiological changes. Accordingly, the measured urine concentrations during either the first or third trimesters can be used as estimates of exposure during pregnancy and can serve as markers for prenatal intake of these metals in the studied cohort. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Portillo M.E.,Microbiology Laboratory | Portillo M.E.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Salvado M.,Microbiology Laboratory | Trampuz A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Sonication improved the diagnosis of orthopedic implant-associated infections (OIAI). We investigated the diagnostic performance of sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles in comparison with that of intraoperative tissue and sonication fluid cultures. Consecutive patients with removed orthopedic hardware were prospectively included and classified as having OIAI or aseptic failure (AF) according to standardized criteria. The diagnostic procedure included the collection of five intraoperative tissue cultures and sonication of the removed device, followed by conventional culture of the sonication fluid. Cultures were incubated for 7 days (aerobic) or 14 days (anaerobic). In addition, 10 ml of sonication fluid was inoculated into each aerobic and anaerobic BacT/Alert FAN blood culture bottle and incubated in the automated blood culture system for 5 days. Of 75 included patients, 39 had OIAI and 36 AF. The sensitivity of sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles (100%) was higher than that of conventional sonication fluid (87%; P=0.05) or intraoperative tissue cultures (59%; P<0.01). Previous antibiotic therapy reduced the culture sensitivity of conventional sonication fluid to 77% and that of intraoperative tissue to 55%, while it remained 100% for blood culture-inoculated sonication fluid. The time to positivity was shorter in blood culture-inoculated sonication fluid, with detection of 72% of microorganisms after 1 day of incubation, than for intraoperative tissue and conventional sonication fluid cultures, with detection of 18% and 28% of microorganisms, respectively. In conclusion, compared to conventional sonication fluid and intraoperative tissue cultures, sonication fluid inoculated into blood culture bottles improved the diagnosis of OIAI and considerably reduced the time to culture positivity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Le Moual N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Carsin A.-E.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Carsin A.-E.,Research Institute IMIM | Carsin A.-E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 28 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2014

Occupational exposure is a well-recognised modifiable risk factor for asthma, but the relationship between occupational exposure and asthma control has not been studied. We aimed to study this association among working-age adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Data were available for 7077 participants (mean age 43 years, 45% never-smokers, 5867 without asthma and 1210 with current asthma). Associations between occupational exposure to specific asthmagens and asthma control status (33% with uncontrolled asthma, based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines) were evaluated using logistic and multinomial regressions, adjusted for age, sex and smoking status, with study areas included as a random effect. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between uncontrolled adult-onset asthma and both past 12-month and 10-year exposure to any occupational asthmagens (OR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.0-2.40) and 1.7 (1.2-2.5), respectively); high (1.7 (1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (1.3-2.9), respectively) and low (1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.8 (1.2-2.7), respectively) molecular weight agents; and cleaning agents (2.0 (1.1-3.6) and 2.3 (1.4-3.6), respectively), with stronger associations for long-term exposures. These associations were mainly explained by the exacerbation domain of asthma control and no associations were observed between asthmagens and partly controlled asthma. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to asthmagens is associated with uncontrolled adult-onset asthma. Occupational risk factors should be quickly identified to prevent uncontrolled asthma. Copyright © ERS 2014. Source


Casas M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Casas M.,Research Institute IMIM | Casas M.,CIBER ISCIII | Valvi D.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 19 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2013

Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during early life may have endocrine-disrupting effects, but the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy and childhood remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between, and sociodemographic and dietary predictors of, serial urinary BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy and childhood in a Spanish birth cohort study. BPA was measured in two spot urine samples collected from 479 women during the first and third trimester of pregnancy and in one urine sample from their 4-year old children (n = 130). Average dietary intakes were reported in food frequency questionnaires during the first and third pregnancy trimester and at age 4. years. Multivariate mixed models and linear regression models were used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and dietary factors and BPA concentrations. A small, but statistically significant correlation was found between serial maternal BPA concentrations measured during pregnancy (r = 0.17). Pregnant women who were younger, less-educated, smoked, and who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) had higher BPA concentrations than others. BPA concentrations were also higher in children exposed to SHS. High consumption of canned fish during pregnancy was associated with 21% [GM ratio = 1.21; 95%CI 1.02, 1.44] and 25% [GM ratio = 1.25; 95%CI 1.05, 1.49] higher urinary BPA concentrations in the first and third pregnancy trimester, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. This study suggests that canned fish may be a major source of BPA during pregnancy in Spain, a country of high canned fish consumption. Further evaluation of specific BPA exposure sources in the sociodemographic group of younger women who smoke, are exposed to SHS, and have a low educational level is needed. Studies identifying sources of exposure would benefit from repeat BPA measurements and questionnaires specifically focused on dietary and packaging sources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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