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Kovacs C.,Debrecen University | Balling P.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Bihari Z.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Nagy A.,Debrecen University | Sandor E.,Debrecen University
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2017

Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTD) are of great importance worldwide, including Hungary, a Center European country with long wine producing history. Several GTD pathogens have been described till now in Europe, but only a few from Hungary. The presence of a GTD pathogen in the vine does not necessarily result in the immediate appearance of disease symptoms, and information on the importance of environmental factors related to disease incidence are still limited. The aim of this research was to assess the occurrence of GTD in the Tokaj Wine Region, and to determine the biotic and abiotic factors influencing disease incidence. Five vineyards within 15 km radius – each with different topology, soil types, varieties and age – were studied for three consecutive years (2013 – 2015). The incidence of GTD-infection was determined every year for each vineyard. Diplodia seriata was isolated with incidence ranging from 50 to 100%, while Diaporthe spp. were the only other – minor – GTD pathogen found. Topology and soil type appeared to be major abiotic factors affecting incidence of GTD symptom. Disease incidence was also positively correlating with the age of the vineyards, and it was in fact found to be the definitive biotic factor regarding incidence. In contrast, D. seriata infection rate appeared unrelated to disease incidence or to any of the biotic or abiotic factors investigated. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Toth J.P.,Debrecen University | Toth J.P.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Bereczki J.,Debrecen University | Varga Z.,Debrecen University | And 4 more authors.
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

The genus Melitaea consists of about 80 species, divided into ten species groups, which are all restricted to the Palaearctic region. The Melitaea phoebe group was defined by Higgins based on morphological characters such as wing pattern and genital structures. According to his interpretation, the M.phoebe group included seven species: M.phoebe, M.sibina, M.scotosia, M.aetherie, M.collina, M.consulis and M.turkmanica. The taxonomy of the phoebe species group has been poorly resolved and recent results on the species composition within the group suggest the need for a re-evaluation. In this study molecular sequences (5985bp) including one mitochondrial (COI) and up to six nuclear (CAD, EF-1α, GAPDH, MDH, RpS5 and wingless) gene regions from 38 specimens of the Melitaea phoebe species group sensu Higgins and some closely related taxa from the Palaearctic region were analysed. The possible evolution of the processus posterior of the male genitalia was also reconstructed based on a shape mapping technique. The analysis of the combined data shows a very clear pattern and almost all relationships are highly supported. Based on the combined Bayesian tree and the shape of the processus posterior of the male genitalia, four main groups are recognised: (i) collina group, (ii) arduinna group, (iii) aetherie group and (iv) phoebe group. The status of M.ornata, M.zagrosi and M.scotosia as species is confirmed, and the results also indicate that M.telona (s.s.) from Israel is a separate species. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.


Toth J.P.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Vegvari Z.,Debrecen University
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2016

Background and Aims: Recent climatic warming trends are evident from observational studies, and investigating the likely impact of climate change on biological systems is of substantial importance. In this study, MaxEnt modelling has been applied to predict the possible effect of climate change on winegrape distribution across Europe using the basic bioclimatic variables. The proportion of potential area lost because of warming was estimated for the most important wine-producing countries. Methods and Results: A MaxEnt modelling approach was used to predict the possible effect of climate change on the distribution of winegrape (Vitis vinifera) across Europe using basic bioclimatic variables. The predictions of the climate models, Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization MK3, were used to obtain potential changes in climatic suitability for growing winegrapes. The area loss is calculated for the main wine-producing countries in Europe, Portugal, Spain, France and Italy. Annual mean temperature was significant to model performance, and predicted suitable areas fitted well against the known winegrowing regions. Future predictions showed consistent changes based on a range of climate scenarios, with winegrowing regions predicted to shift northward. At the same time, additional problems may arise in the Mediterranean region as the most significant area loss is predicted for these regions. Conclusions: The predicted range stability until 2050 is dynamic, implying adaptations such as changing of grape cultivar and selection or modification of grapevine management could be necessary even in those regions which remain suitable in the future. Significance of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the future distribution of winegrapes in Europe in response to global warming using MaxEnt modelling. Area loss was considered for only those locations where viticulture was covered by the CORINE database. This approach provides more realistic information, since the area suitable for winegrape cultivation is evidently much larger than the realised range. © 2016 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.


Racz R.,Debrecen University | Bereczki J.,Debrecen University | Sramko G.,Debrecen University | Sramko G.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | And 8 more authors.
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2015

Fifteen new microsatellite markers for the beetle Lethrus apterus were developed and tested in 45 specimens from the North Hungarian Mountains. Fourteen of the markers developed were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to nine. The observed and expected heterozygosities of the polymorphic markers ranged from 0.178 to 0.578, and 0.201 to 0.698, respectively. One locus showed significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to null alleles. The primers were tested on four other Lethrus species (L. bituberculatus, L. scoparius, L. strymonensis and L. perun) and six other coleopteran species (Copris hispanus, Geotrupes stercorarius, Melolontha melolontha, Onthophagus taurus, Oryctes nasicornis and Protaetia affinis). Thirteen loci showed cross-amplification in the Lethrus species and only three loci could be amplified in some of the six other coleopteran species. The developed markers will be valuable in investigating the population genetic structure, behaviour and reproductive biology of L. apterus. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2015.


Bihari Z.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Toth J.P.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Zsigrai Gy.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Balling P.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The scion-rootstock interaction may influence several physiological issues such as water relations, leaf gas exchange, mineral uptake, etc. Moreover, performance of different rootstock types could be variable under different environmental conditions, thus the appropriate rootstock selection has great importance for the producers. In this study three different types of rootstocks were tested in loess soil. The research was carried out in the Tokaj wine region, where the loess is one of the most important parent material types. Ruggeri 140, 5C and Fercal rootstock varieties were involved in the experiment with 'Furmint' scions. Our hypothesis was that the scion would show better vegetative growth on better rootstock type thus the rootstock quality was measured as the cumulative length of the shoots. Altogether 726 vines were measured and analysed by Generalized Linear Models and GIS methods. The vegetative growth of the shoots is significantly influenced by the rootstock type, but also the surveyed soil variables. Significant relationship between shoot length and the geographic location of the stock was also indicated. Despite this, the effect of rootstock type on shoot growth remained significant even if we used geographic coordinates as random factor. Our results showed that the shoot growth was slightly better in Fercal than Ruggeri 140 or 5C in loess soil This rootstock type was the less affected by the soil variables providing better vegetative growth in all conditions than 5C and Ruggeri 140. The Fercal has been already widely used rootstock type in Tokaj region, however, not only in loess soils. © 2016, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Kremper R.,Debrecen University | Zsigrai G.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Kovacs A.B.,Debrecen University | Loch J.,Debrecen University
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2015

The long-term effect of 87.3 kg/ha P on the yield elements and nutrient content of maize was studied at the National Long-Term Fertilization Experiment of the Karcag Research Institute in Hungary. The soil of the experiment site is non-calcareous Luvic Phaeosem, and its soluble phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) content in 0–20 cm soil layer are: ammonium lactate P: 141.1 mg/kg and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) Zn: 0.85 mg/kg, respectively. The effect of foliar Zn fertilization was studied at three levels of nitrogen (150, 200 and 250 kg/ha) and under 87.3 kg/ha P and 82.6 kg/ha K application in four replications. The applied Zn amount was 700 g/ha. We measured the grain yield and the thousand-kernel weight. Leaf and grain samples were analyzed for phosphorus, zinc, potassium, calcium, magnesium and manganese content. Foliar Zn application did not increase the yield significantly, but it enhanced the thousand-kernel weight. The element content did not change significantly – neither in leaves nor in kernels. Under the examined habitat circumstances even the long-term application of 87.3 kg/ha P dosage did not cause Zn deficiency to such an extent which would lead to significant yield depression of maize. © 2015, Institute of Agricultural and Food Information. All rights reserved.


Bereczki J.,Debrecen University | Bereczki J.,Mta Of Lendulet Behavioural Ecology Research Group | Racz R.,Debrecen University | Racz R.,Mta Of Lendulet Behavioural Ecology Research Group | And 2 more authors.
Organisms Diversity and Evolution | Year: 2015

Wolbachia is a common group of intracellular bacteria found in arthropods and filarial nematodes. Since the past decade, they have attracted considerable interest owing to their various effects on hosts, which range from reproductive manipulation to mutualism. Moreover, they can influence the mitochondrial DNA pattern which do not reflect the real evolutionary history of the target species and may be incongruent with nuclear data. Previously, Wolbachia-manipulated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) patterns, namely mito-nuclear discordance and deep mitochondrial splits associated with specific Wolbachia infections, have been also discovered in the genus Maculinea. Here, we present a comprehensive study on Wolbachia infestation and the genetic diversity of all Maculinea species in the Carpathian Basin. The prevalence and the pattern of the infestation highly differ among Maculinea species. Maculinea alcon and Maculinea arion are infected in 100 %, each of these species with a single strain, but the infection level of Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea teleius is much lower, additionally, they are infected with multiple strains. The genetic diversity of Maculinea species proved to be generally low, only M. nausithous showed geographic pattern based on mitochondrial sequences and allozymes. In contrast with the previous studies, we could not detect mito-nuclear discordance or find evidence for Wolbachia-induced selective sweep. Based on our results, we cannot hold only Wolbachia responsible for the restricted genetic diversity of Maculinea in the Carpathian Basin. Probably several factors shape together the level and pattern of genetic variability in Maculinea butterflies. © 2015, Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik.


Pfliegler W.P.,Debrecen University | Horvath E.,Debrecen University | Kallai Z.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | Sipiczki M.,Debrecen University
Microbiological Research | Year: 2014

Among non- Saccharomyces wine yeasts, Candida zemlpinina is one of the frequently isolated and oenologically important species. It is mostly known from European winemaking areas and it has become one of the key species of non- Saccharomyces wine yeasts to study. Investigating the diversity of C. zemplinina isolates is important for a deeper understanding of the non- Saccharomyces wine yeasts and for the yeast starter industry, as numerous researches have pointed to the potential use of this species in winemaking. For assessing the biodiversity of a larger number of strains, RAPD and micro/minisatellite PCR is often the method of choice, however, this technique is often unstandardized. Whereas some laboratories use these methods for species identifications, others apply RAPD primers for determining intraspecies diversity. In this study, we have tested 5 different RAPD and micro/minisatellite primers on strains of C. zemplinina isolated from different locations. We show that after a rigorous PCR-optimization aimed at reproducibility and comparability of band patterns with these PCR-reactions, diversity of different strains from a wide range of geographic locations is relatively low. The analysis of several oenologically important physiological traits of the strains showed a relatively low level of diversity as well. We also demonstrate that the intraspecific diversity of C. zemplinina observable with different techniques (RAPD, micro/minisatellite or physiological analysis) may be fairly different and not necessarily comparable. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Bereczki J.,Debrecen University | Bereczki J.,Mta Of Lendulet Behavioural Ecology Research Group | Toth J.P.,Debrecen University | Toth J.P.,Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2014

The main goal of our research was to study comprehensively the differences between the two phenological forms of the socially parasitic and globally threatened Large Blue (Maculinea arion) in the Carpathian Basin using four character sets (mitochondrial sequences, allozymes, male genitalia and wing morphometrics). Comparative analyses of distance matrices, phylogenetic trees and ordination patterns have been applied. The genetic and morphometric patterns revealed by our studies were discordant. While we experienced a significant differentiation between the 'spring' and 'summer type' of M. arion in both wing and genital traits, the two phenological forms did not show any genetic differentiation on two mitochondrial loci and in allozymes. At the same time, all individuals were infected by Wolbachia. Although certain wing traits may not represent reliable tracers of phylogeny because of the particular adaptive significance, the wing characteristics involved in our research are probably determined genetically. Additionally, the significant differentiation of male genitalia also indicates incipient prezygotic isolation arising from phenological differentiation between the 'spring and summer arion'. It is possible that all extant differences between the two forms are attributable to (1) different host-ant use, (2) incipient speciation, (3) cytoplasmatic incompatibility (CI) by Wolbachia or the combination of these factors. In addition, discordant results indicate that the combined use of different approaches and data sets is strictly necessary to clarify systematic and evolutionary relationships. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology and Debrecen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbiological research | Year: 2014

Among non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, Candida zemlpinina is one of the frequently isolated and oenologically important species. It is mostly known from European winemaking areas and it has become one of the key species of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to study. Investigating the diversity of C. zemplinina isolates is important for a deeper understanding of the non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts and for the yeast starter industry, as numerous researches have pointed to the potential use of this species in winemaking. For assessing the biodiversity of a larger number of strains, RAPD and micro/minisatellite PCR is often the method of choice, however, this technique is often unstandardized. Whereas some laboratories use these methods for species identifications, others apply RAPD primers for determining intraspecies diversity. In this study, we have tested 5 different RAPD and micro/minisatellite primers on strains of C. zemplinina isolated from different locations. We show that after a rigorous PCR-optimization aimed at reproducibility and comparability of band patterns with these PCR-reactions, diversity of different strains from a wide range of geographic locations is relatively low. The analysis of several oenologically important physiological traits of the strains showed a relatively low level of diversity as well. We also demonstrate that the intraspecific diversity of C. zemplinina observable with different techniques (RAPD, micro/minisatellite or physiological analysis) may be fairly different and not necessarily comparable.

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