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Kitsiou-Tzeli S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Frysira H.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Giannikou K.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Giannikou K.,Research Institute for the Study of Genetic and Malignant Disorders in Childhood | And 7 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012

The recognition of the 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndrome has been facilitated by high resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genome hybridization technology (aCGH). Molecular analysis of the 17q21.31 microdeletion/duplication syndrome demonstrated a critical region involving at least six genes, including STH and MAPT. The 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome has an incidence of 1 in 16,000 births, while the microduplication 17q21.31 has been reported so far in only five patients. In general, phenotypes associated with 17q21.31 microduplication seem to be milder than those associated with the microdeletion. Here, we present four patients who have been referred for genetic evaluation by clinical geneticists due to developmental delay and minor congenital abnormalities. Previous standard karyotypes were negative, while aCGH analysis revealed three patients with 17q21.31 microdeletion and one with the respective microduplication, being the sixth reported case so far. Most importantly one of the microdeletion cases involves only partial MAPT gene deletion while leaving the STH gene intact. Two of our patients, one with the 17q21.31 microdeletion and another with the respective microduplication, carried additional clinically relevant microdeletions (del Xq21.31 and del 15q11.2, respectively), possibly modifying their phenotype. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zachaki S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Vrettou C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Destouni A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kokkali G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 3 more authors.
Hemoglobin | Year: 2011

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for β hemoglobinopathies has become the most common application among monogenic disorders. We present the identification of microsatellite markers [short tandem repeats (STRs)] closely linked to the β-globin gene for incorporation within PGD protocols, with the aim of increasing the number of transferable embryos. Nine candidate STRs were identified in-silico, of which three were selected based on rate-of-heterozygosity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) efficiency and size. The multiplex reaction (β-globin gene and selected STRs, all within <0.4 Mb from the β gene) was optimized in single lymphocytes, and subsequently applied in 38 PGD cycles in couples at-risk for transmitting β hemoglobinopathies. In conclusion, incorporation of closely linked polymorphic microsatellite markers <0.4 Mb from the β-globin gene, facilitates robust assignment of β hemoglobinopathy genotypes, increasing the number of transferrable embryos otherwise rejected due to allele-drop-out (ADO), at the mutation-specific locus, compared to results based on disease-mutation genotyping alone (p <0.001). © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Kitsiou-Tzeli S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Tzetis M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Sofocleous C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Sofocleous C.,Research Institute for the Study of Genetic and Malignant Disorders in Childhood | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

The 15q11-q13 PWS/AS critical region involves genes that are characterized by genomic imprinting. Multiple repeat elements within the region mediate rearrangements, including interstitial duplications, interstitial triplications, and supernumerary isodicentric marker chromosomes, as well as the deletions that cause Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS). Recently, duplications of maternal origin concerning the same critical region have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present a 6-month-old girl carrying a de novo duplication of maternal origin of the 15q11.2-q14 PWS/AS region (17.73Mb in size) [46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2-q14)] detected with a high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The patient is characterized by severe hypotonia, obesity, microstomia, long eyelashes, hirsutism, microretrognathia, short nose, severe psychomotor retardation, and multiple episodes of drug-resistant epileptic seizures, while her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) documented partial corpus callosum dysplasia. In our patient the duplicated region is quite large extending beyond the Prader-Willi-Angelman critical region (PWACR), containing a number of genes that have been shown to be involved in ASD, exhibiting a severe phenotype, beyond the typical PWS/AS clinical manifestations. Reporting of similar well-characterized clinical cases with clearly delineated breakpoints of the duplicated region will clarify the contribution of specific genes to the phenotype. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Tzetis M.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kitsiou-Tzeli S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Frysira H.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Xaidara A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2012

Clinical characteristics of patients are not always related to specific syndromes. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is used to detect submicroscopic copy number variants within the genome not visible by conventional karyotyping. The clinical application of aCGH has helped the genetic diagnosis of patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, with or without multiple congenital anomalies. Since 2008, we have implemented aCGH with the 244K and 4×180K Agilent platform on 334 patients with various degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability, seizures, autism spectrum disorders, multiple congenital anomalies and normal previous conventional karyotype. Many of the patients had also received a variety of other genetic tests (Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, single FISH tests or metabolic screens), which were normal. Clinically significant submicroscopic imbalances with aCGH were detected in 84 (∼25.15%) patients. aCGH is proving to be a powerful tool for the identification of novel chromosomal syndromes, thus allowing accurate prognosis and phenotype-genotype correlations. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source


Karavitakis E.,Neonatal Special Care Unit | Kitsiou-Tzeli S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Xaidara A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kosma K.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

Constitutional microdeletions affecting 3q13.2q13.31 are rare and attempts for genotype-phenotype correlations have only recently been made in a cohort of 28 patients. The major phenotypic features of this rare syndrome are hypotonia, developmental delay, and facial anomalies. In this study, we report on a male infant with a novel reciprocal 3.671Mb microduplication at the genomic region 3q13.2q13.31 associated with dysmorphic features and multiple congenital anomalies. The current patient was investigated by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). This is the first report of a microduplication 3q13.2q13.31 that shares a lot of common clinical features with those carrying the microdeletion. The 3q13.2q13.31 duplicated region in our patient contains nine dosage sensitive genes, amongst them the genes ATG3, CCDC80, KIAA2018, NAA50, ZDHHC23, DRD3, ZBTB20, GAP43, LSAMP. As it is the case for many other well-described reciprocal deletion/duplication syndromes, some have very different clinical features (Williams-Beuren deletion syndrome, WBS/WBS triplication) [Somerville et al. (2005); N Engl J Med 353:1694-1701], while others share similar phenotypic features (22q11.2 microdeletion/microduplication) [Portnoi (2009); Eur J Med Genet 52:88-93]. In conclusion, we describe the main phenotypic features of a possibly novel microduplication 3q13.2q13.31 syndrome. Additionally five of the dosage-sensitive genes and BOC gene are suggested to be responsible for the main phenotypic features. Evaluation of multiple patients with the microduplication is needed for full delineation of this syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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