Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN

Dummerstorf, Germany

Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN

Dummerstorf, Germany
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Briese V.,University of Rostock | Voigt M.,Institute for Perinatal Auxology | Wisser J.,University of Zürich | Borchardt U.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Straube S.,University of Gottingen
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2011

Purpose: To compare risks of pregnancy and birth in obese (body mass index, BMI -30) and normal weight women (BMI 18.5-24.99) giving birth to their first child. Methods: We analysed data of 243,571 pregnancies in primiparous women from the German perinatal statistics of 1998-2000. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for selected pregnancy and birth risks. ORs were adjusted for the confounding factors age, smoking status, single mother status, and maternal education. Results: Obesity during pregnancy is common in primiparous women (n = 19,130; 7.9% of all cases) and it is significantly associated with a number of risks of pregnancy and birth, including diabetes [OR 3.71 (95% CI 2.93; 4.71); p < 0.001], hypertension [OR 8.44 (7.91; 9.00); p < 0.001], preecalmpsia/eclampsia [OR 6.72 (6.30; 7.17); p < 0.001], intraamniotic infection [OR 2.33 (2.05; 2.64); p < 0.001], birth weight ≤4,000 g [OR 2.16 (2.05; 2.28); p < 0.001], and an increased rate of Caesarean section [OR 2.23 (2.15; 2.30); p < 0.001]. Some risks were less frequent in the obese such as cervical incompetence [OR 0.55 (0.48; 0.63); p < 0.001] and preterm labour [OR 0.47 (0.43; 0.51); p < 0.001]. Conclusions: Obesity during pregnancy is an important clinical problem in primiparous women because it is common and it is associated with a number of risks of pregnancy and birth. Because of these increased risks, obese women need special attention clinically during the course of their first pregnancy. Weight reduction before the first pregnancy is generally indicated in obese women to prevent the above-mentioned complications of pregnancy and birth. © 2010 The Author(s).

Spotter A.,Institute for Bee Research Hohen Neuendorf e.V. | Gupta P.,Institute for Bee Research Hohen Neuendorf e.V. | Nurnberg G.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Reinsch N.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Bienefeld K.,Institute for Bee Research Hohen Neuendorf e.V.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2012

Honey bees are exposed to a number of damaging pathogens and parasites. The most destructive among them, affecting mainly the brood, is Varroa destructor. A promising approach to prevent its spread is to breed for Varroa-tolerant honey bees. A trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behaviour, a behavioural response of honey bee workers to brood diseases in general. This study reports the development of a 44K SNP assay, specifically designed for the analysis of hygienic behaviour of individual worker bees (Apis mellifera carnica) directed against V. destructor. Initially, 70000 SNPs chosen from a large set of SNPs published by the Honey Bee Genome Project were validated for their suitability in the analysis of the Varroa resistance trait 'uncapping of Varroa-infested brood'. This was achieved by genotyping of pooled DNA samples of trait bearers and two trait-negative controls using next-generation sequencing. Approximately 36000 of these validated SNPs and another 8000 SNPs not validated in this study were selected for the construction of a SNP assay. This assay will be employed in following experiments to analyse individualized DNA samples in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the control of the investigated trait and to evaluate and possibly confirm QTL found in other studies. However, this assay is not just suitable to study Varroa tolerance, it is as well applicable to analyse any other trait in honey bees. In addition, because of its high density, this assay provides access into genomic selection with respect to several traits considered in honey bee breeding. It will become publicly available via AROS Applied Biotechnology AS, Aarhus, Denmark, before the end of the year 2011. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kiank C.,University of Greifswald | Zeden J.-P.,University of Greifswald | Drude S.,University of Greifswald | Domanska G.,University of Greifswald | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

It is increasingly recognized that psychological stress influences inflammatory responses and mood. Here, we investigated whether psychological stress (combined acoustic and restraint stress) activates the tryptophan (Trp) catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1(IDO1) and thereby alters the immune homeostasis and behavior in mice. We measured IDO1 mRNA expression and plasma levels of Trp catabolites after a single 2-h stress session and in repeatedly stressed (4.5-days stress, 2-h twice a day) nai{dotless}̈ve BALB/c mice. A role of cytokines in acute stress-induced IDO1 activation was studied after IFNΓ and TNFα blockade and in IDO12/2 mice. RU486 and 1-Methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) were used to study role of glucocorticoids and IDO1 on Trp depletion in altering the immune and behavioral response in repeatedly stressed animals. Clinical relevance was addressed by analyzing IDO1 activity in patients expecting abdominal surgery. Acute stress increased the IDO1 mRNA expression in brain, lung, spleen and Peyer's patches (max. 14.1±4.9-fold in brain 6-h after stress) and resulted in a transient depletion of Trp (-25.±66.6%) and serotonin (-27.3±4.6%) from the plasma measured 6-h after stress while kynurenine levels increased 6-h later (11.2±9.3%). IDO1 mRNA up-regulation was blocked by anti-TNFα and anti-IFNΓ treatment. Continuous IDO1 blockade by 1-MT but not RU486 treatment normalized the anti-bacterial defense and attenuated increased IL-10 inducibility in splenocytes after repeated stress as it reduced the loss of body weight and behavioral alterations. Moreover, kynurenic acid which remained increased in 1-MT treated repeatedly stressed mice was identified to reduce the TNFα inducibility of splenocytes in vitro and in vivo. Thus, psychological stress stimulates cytokinedriven IDO1 activation and Trp depletion which seems to have a central role for developing stress-induced immunosuppression and behavioral alteration. Since patients showed Trp catabolism already prior to surgery, IDO is also a possible target enzyme for humans modulating immune homeostasis and mood. © 2010 Kiank et al.

Bielohuby M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Matsuura M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Herbach N.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kienzle E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2010

Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in adults and are also used as part of a treatment for children with epilepsy. However, potential risks and side effects remain controversial. We investigated effects of LC-HF diets on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and turnover in growing rats fed for 4 weeks either normal chow (CH, 9% fat, 33% protein, and 58% carbohydrates), LC-HF-1 (66% fat, 33% protein, and 1% carbohydrates), or LC-HF-2 (94.5% fat, 4.2% protein, and 1.3% carbohydrates). Rats fed LC-HF diets accumulated significantly more visceral and bone marrow fat and showed increased leptin but decreased insulin-like growth-factor 1 (IGF-1). Both LC-HF diets significantly decreased body length (nose to rump), but lengths of humerus, tibia, and femur were significantly reduced with LC-HF-2 only. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT (μCT) independently revealed significant reductions in BMD of tibiae in both LC-HF groups, and tibial maximum load was impaired. Bone-formation marker N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen was reduced in sera of LC-HF groups, whereas bone resorption marker CrossLaps remained unchanged. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant reductions by 70% to 80% of transcription factors influencing osteoblastogenesis (Runx2, osterix, and C/EBPβ) in bone marrow of rats fed LC-HF diets. In conclusion, both LC-HF diets impaired longitudinal growth, BMD, and mechanical properties, possibly mediated by reductions in circulating IGF-1. Serum bone-formation markers as well as expression of transcription factors influencing osteoblastogenesis were reduced. This might indicate a lower rate of mesenchymal stem cells differentiating into osteoblasts, thus explaining reduced bone formation with LC-HF diets. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Ponsuksili S.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Murani E.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Phatsara C.,University of Bonn | Schwerin M.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | And 2 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2010

Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiling is a promising approach for identifying biological pathways and dissecting the genetics of complex traits. Here, we report on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) that were estimated from the quantitative real-time RT-PCR data of 276 F 2 animals and compared with eQTL identified using 74 microarrays. In total, 13 genes were selected that showed trait-dependent expression in microarray experiments and exhibited 21 eQTL. Real-time RT-PCR and microarray data revealed seven cis eQTL in total, of which one was only detected by real-time RT-PCR, one was only detected by microarray analysis, three were consistently found in overlapping intervals and two were in neighbouring intervals on the same chromosome; whereas no trans eQTL was confirmed. We demonstrate that cis regulation is a stable characteristic of individual transcripts. Consequently, a global microarray eQTL analysis of a limited number of samples can be used for exploring functional and regulatory gene networks and scanning for cis eQTL, whereas the subsequent analysis of a subset of likely cis-regulated genes by real-time RT-PCR in a larger number of samples is relevant to narrow down a QTL region by targeting these positional candidate genes. In fact, when modelling SNPs of six genes as fixed effects in the eQTL analysis, eQTL peaks were shifted downwards, experimentally confirming the impact of the respective polymorphic genes, although these SNPs were not located in the regulatory sequence and these shifts occur as a result of linkage disequilibrium in the F 2 population. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Furbass R.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Tomek W.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Vanselow J.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN
BMC Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Background: Placenta-derived oestrogens have an impact on the growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, and are involved in processes initiating and facilitating birth. The enzyme that converts androgens into oestrogens, aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom), is encoded by the Cyp19 gene. In the placenta of the cow, expression of Cyp19 relies on promoter 1.1 (P1.1). Our recent studies of P1.1 in vitro and in a human trophoblast cell line (Jeg3) revealed that interactions of placental nuclear protein(s) with the E-box element at position -340 are required for full promoter activity. The aim of this work was to identify and characterise the placental E-box (-340)-binding protein(s) (E-BP) as a step towards understanding how the expression of Cyp19 is regulated in the bovine placenta.Results: The significance of the E-box was confirmed in cultured primary bovine trophoblasts. We enriched the E-BP from placental nuclear extracts using DNA-affinity Dynabeads and showed by Western blot analysis and supershift EMSA experiments that the E-BP is composed of the transcription factors upstream stimulating factor (USF) 1 and USF2. Depletion of the USFs by RNAi and expression of a dominant-negative USF mutant, were both associated with a significant decrease in P1.1-dependent reporter gene expression. Furthermore, scatter plot analysis of P1.1 activity vs. USF binding to the E-box revealed a strong positive correlation between the two parameters.Conclusion: From these results we conclude that USF1 and USF2 are activators of the bovine placenta-specific promoter P1.1 and thus act in the opposite mode as in the case of the non-orthologous human placenta-specific promoter. © 2010 Fürbass et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wolf F.I.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Trapani V.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Simonacci M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Mastrototaro L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2010

Mammary epithelial cells (HC11) chronically adapted to grow in a low-magnesium (0.05mM vs. 0.5 mM) or in a high-magnesium (40 mM) medium were used to investigate on the mechanisms of cell magnesium transport under conditions of non-physiological magnesium availability. Magnesium influx was higher in low-magnesium cells compared to control or high-magnesium cells, whereas magnesium efflux was higher in high-magnesium cells compared to control and low-magnesium cells. Magnesium efflux was partially inhibited by imipramine, inhibitor of the Na+/Mg2+ exchange. Using a monoclonal antibody detecting a ∼70 kDa protein associated with Na+/Mg 2+ exchange activity, we found that the expression levels of this protein were proportional to magnesium efflux capacity, that is, high-magnesium cells>control cells>low-magnesium cells. As for magnesium influx, this was abolished by Co(III)hexaammine, inhibitor of magnesium channels. Surprisingly, we found that cells grown in low magnesium upregulated mRNA for the magnesium channel TRPM6, but not for other channels like TRPM7 or MagT1. TRPM6mRNA was also rapidly upregulated or downregulated in HC11 cells deprived of magnesium or in low-magnesium cells re-added with magnesium, respectively. TRPM6 protein levels, as assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence, underwent similar changes under comparable conditions. We propose that mammary epithelial cells adapt to decreased magnesium availability by upregulating magnesium influx via TRPM6, and counteract increased magnesium availability by increasing magnesium efflux primarily via Na+/Mg2+ exchange. These results show, for the first time, that TRPM6 contributes to regulating magnesium influx in mammary epithelial cells, similar to what is known for intestine and kidney. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Srikanchai T.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Murani E.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Wimmers K.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Ponsuksili S.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2010

Four genes, VTN, KERA, LYZ, and a non-annotated EST (Affymetrix probe set ID: Ssc.25503.1.S1-at), whose candidacy for traits related to water-holding capacity of meat arises from their trait-dependent differential expression, were selected for candidate gene analysis. Based on in silico analysis SNPs were detected, confirmed by sequencing and used to genotype animals of 4 pig populations including 3 commercial herds of Pietrain (PI), Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) (PIF1), German Landrace (DL) and 1 experimental F2 population Duroc × Pietrain (DUPI). Comparative and genetic mapping established the location of VTN on SSC12, of LYZ and KERA on SSC5 and of UN on SSC7, coinciding with QTL regions for meat quality traits. VTN showed association with pH1, pH24 and drip loss. LYZ revealed association with conductivity 24, pH1 and drip loss. KERA was associated with pH. UN showed association with pH24 and drip loss, respectively. However, none of the candidate genes showed significant associations for a particular trait across all populations. This may be due to breed specific effects that are related to the differences in meat quality of theses pig breeds. The studies revealed statistic evidence for a link of genetic variation at these loci or close to them and promoted those four candidate genes as functional and/or positional candidate genes for meat quality traits. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Borner V.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Reinsch N.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2010

Findings within the last 15 years emphasize the possible role of genomic imprinting for trait expression in livestock species. In genetic evaluation, genomically imprinted traits can be treated by models with two different breeding values per animal; one accounts for the paternal and the other for the maternal expression pattern. Relative weighting factors for these breeding values were derived by a generalized version of the discounted gene flow method, which was extended to a gametic level to account for parent-of-origin effects. The gametic approach proved also useful for calculating the expected increase in inbreeding induced by one round of selection and its dynamics over time. The gametic gene flow method was applied to a hypothetical pig breeding programme. Relative weighting factors were higher for the paternally inherited genetic effect even in female selection paths, but depend on the breeding scheme heavily. The maximum medium-term increase in inbreeding due to selection exceeded the long-term increase in a range of 20-100%. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Kalbe C.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN | Puppe B.,Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals FBN
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2010

Enriching the housing environment by stimuli that challenge both reward and cognitive mechanisms may enhance behavioural experiences and can improve animal welfare, particularly in farm animals. A newly developed experimental feeding system for domestic pigs using food-rewarded learning of discriminatory and instrumental tasks enabled the animals to successfully master a cognitive challenge and to be rewarded ca. 30 times per day with small food portions. Reward-related behaviour is expected to be modulated by endogenous opioid systems. Furthermore, recent evidence supports a role for the amygdala in processing positive affects by stimulus-reward learning. Hence, the present study investigates mRNA expression of cerebral receptors, which are involved in these processes. In an initial step, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provided the first evidence that transcripts of three different opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR), as well as the neuropeptide Y 5 receptor (NPY5R), leptin receptor (LEPR) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are expressed in both the porcine amygdala and hypothalamus. Using real-time PCR we could show that the expression of two receptors of the opioid system (amygdala: KOR, DOR), in addition to the expression of NPY5R (hypothalamus) in eight enriched housed pigs was markedly downregulated compared to that of conventionally housed and fed pigs. Focusing on opioid receptors in the amygdala, the present study shows that long-term cognitive enrichment acts as a biologically relevant stimulus that causes modifications of gene expression of reward-sensitive cerebral receptors in domestic pigs. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

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