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Blecha M.,Masaryk University | Faimon J.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation
Acta Carsologica

CO2 concentrations were studied in the selected soils of the Moravian Karst, Czech Republic. The direct measurement in the air of drill-holes has indicated that the concentrations depend inversely on a pore dimension. The simplified relation between the drill-hole diameter and CO2 concentration, was proposed, where cCO2 is the CO2 concentration extrapolated to the zero drill-hole diameter in ppmv, cCO2 is directly measured CO2 concentration in ppmv, and D is drillhole diameter in cm. a and b are parameters in cm-1 and ppmv cm-1, respectively. For the karst soils formed at grass field and deciduous forest, the values of a and b parameters were determined as -0.146±0.012 (standard error) cm-1 and 262.0±56.3 ppmv cm-1, respectively. The dependence between cCO2 and D was less obvious for the heavy clay soils of coniferous forest. To understand the dependence better, a conceptual model was created taking into account the concentration gradients and mass fluxes. Source

Sladkova J.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation
Soil and Water Research

The procedure of processing and utilising the soil information entering the SOTER system is tested on the pilot area of the Litoměřice district. The reliability of the archive data is examined, the archive data being updated by a new soil survey, modern (geo)statistical methods, and pedotransfer rules. Using the SOTER methodology, a soil map of the district with the scale of 1:50 000 has been developed. Proposals for the adjustments to the currently valid soil classification system are processed. Source

Duffkova R.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation | Hejcman M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Libichova H.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

There is increasing pressure to apply cattle slurry on Arrhenatherion grasslands in Central Europe, but intensive manuring can decrease their natural value. We searched for an N application rate which represents an acceptable compromise between farming requirements for high soil fertility and adequate herbage production, environmental protection requirements for balanced applications of nutrients and nature conservation requirements for species-rich grasslands. We applied different annual rates of cattle slurry (0, 60, 120, 180, 240kg Nha-1) on moderately dry Arrhenatherion grasslands over six years.Slurry application positively affected soil fertility by increasing pH, as well as P, K and Mg availability, without any effect on organic C and the total N content. The mean annual herbage yield was 2.58, 3.56, 4.40, 5.75 and 6.09tha-1 in 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and K in herbage slightly increased with slurry application, while the concentration of Ca decreased. There was no surplus of N, K and Ca up to an N application rate of 120kgha-1, and there was only a slight surplus of P and Mg. In S3 and S4 treatments, the main change in vegetation was an increase in graminoids cover, accompanied by a decrease in the cover of legumes and short forbs, without any significant effect on the species richness of vascular plants. Slurry application at annual rates up to 120Nha-1 seems to be an acceptable compromise, and we recommend setting this limit for application of cattle slurry on Arrhenatherion grasslands. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Roub R.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Hejduk T.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation | Novak P.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation
Moravian Geographical Reports

Of all natural disasters, floods represent the most serious threat to the territory of the Czech Republic. This is given by the situation of the Czech Republic at the continental as well as the worldwide scale. At present, the design of anti-flood measures is mostly based on technical measures, without considering improvements in the hydromorphological status according to the Framework Directive on Water Management and without considering the natural transformation of flood discharge in the alluvial plains of water courses. This report presents a design for the optimization of anti-flood measures in the pilot catchment of the Litavka River, in which we propose particular measures for the catchment for its entire surface while providing a good hydromorphological status. We also wanted to quantify the proposed measures leading to the increased retention and accumulation capacities of the catchment area. Source

Kulhavy Z.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation | Fucik P.,Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies

This paper introduces issues of agricultural drainage systems from the views of former, current, and future roles and the functioning of these systems in Central Europe. A methodologically disparate survey was done on 39 model locations in the Czech Republic with different intensities and states of land drainage systems, aimed at describing commonly occurring problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, and landscape managers, or by protective water management. The survey was focused on the technical state of the systems, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas, and on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and the detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aimed at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down drainage runoff. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land would dramatically complicate the design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management, and the environment. © 2015, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. All rights reserved. Source

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