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Bauer S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Gusev B.,Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology | Belikhina T.,Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology | Moldagaliev T.,Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology | And 2 more authors.
Radioactivity in the Environment | Year: 2013

More than 110 atmospheric nuclear explosions were carried out at the Semipalatinsk test site between 1949 and 1963 and, after the moratorium on above ground nuclear tests, underground nuclear testing was continued until 1989. This chapter describes Soviet and post-Soviet research frameworks and documents some of the scientific debates over nuclear legacies in contemporary Kazakhstan. Nuclear issues played an important role in the independence movements during the late Soviet Union. Efforts to document and mitigate long-term health effects range from epidemiological studies, a compensation program, exposure reconstruction, medical screenings, risk estimation, and radioecology. Reflecting on the changing conditions for research into nuclear legacies, current assessments of the long-term impact of nuclear testing and compensation issues are described. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Markabayeva A.M.,Semey State Medical University | Kerimkulova A.S.,Semey State Medical University | Pivina L.M.,Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology | Rakhypbekov T.K.,Semey State Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Human Ecology | Year: 2015

Many studies have explored associations between radiation exposure and cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Japan, Chernobyl rescue workers, workers of nuclear industry in Germany and in a historical cohort of people who were exposed to the radiation from the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site in Kazakhstan. Non-cancer consequences of radiation exposure have been less studied. We identified a few publications on associations between radiation and cardiovascular diseases, but most of them were conducted in Japan among Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors and their offspring. In this population-based cross-sectional study (n = 1 755) we assessed associations between equivalent radiation dose and blood lipids among population of East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar regions who permanently live in close proximity to Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site. We studied total cholesterol, low- and high density lipoproteins as dependent variables across quartiles of the equivalent radiation dose using multiple linear regression with adjustment for gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index and region of residence. We observed significant positive association between equivalent dose and total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins, but not high density lipoproteins. Our results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms between low dose radiation exposure and cardiovascular diseases. © Northern State Medical University.

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