Research Institute for Production Development

Kyoto, Japan

Research Institute for Production Development

Kyoto, Japan

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News Article | November 1, 2016

WASHINGTON - November 1, 2016 - A randomized evaluation of routine follow-up coronary angiography after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) found that there was no long-term clinical benefit compared to clinical follow-up alone among unselected patients following PCI. Findings from the ReACT trial were reported today at the 28th annual Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) scientific symposium. Sponsored by the Cardiovascular Research Foundation (CRF), TCT is the world's premier educational meeting specializing in interventional cardiovascular medicine. The study was also simultaneously published in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions. In this prospective, multicenter, open label, randomized study, patients who underwent successful PCI without planned staged PCI were randomly assigned to the routine angiographic follow-up (AF) group, in which they received coronary angiography at 8-12 months after PCI, or the clinical follow-up (CF) group. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, emergency hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or hospitalization for congestive heart failure during a minimum of 1.5 years follow-up. Between May 2010 and July 2014, a total of 700 patients were enrolled in the trial at 22 centers in Japan and were randomly assigned to the AF group (N=349) or the CF group (N=351). Although there was a greater incidence of repeat revascularization at one year among patients in the AF group, during the median 4.6 (inter-quartile range: 3.1-5.2) years follow-up, the cumulative 5-year incidence of the primary endpoint was no different between groups (22.4% in the AF group vs. 24.7% in the CF group; hazard ratio: 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.67-1.31, P=0.70). There were also no significant differences between the AF and CF groups in terms of any other clinical endpoints. Coronary revascularization within the first year was more frequently performed in the AF group than in CF group (12.8% vs. 3.8%, log-rank P "In this study, routine follow-up coronary angiography after PCI, as compared with clinical follow-up alone, did not bring any significant clinical benefit," said lead investigator Hiroki Shiomi, MD from Kyoto University Hospital in Kyoto, Japan. "Thus, routine follow-up coronary angiography after PCI cannot be recommended as a clinical strategy. However, the present study was underpowered to detect modest benefits or harm of routine FUCAG, and larger-scale trials, especially in high-risk patients, are warranted to definitively address this issue." The ReACT trial was funded by the Research Institute for Production Development. Dr. Shiomi reported grant/research support from The Research Institute for Production Development. The results of the ReACT trial will be presented on Tuesday, November 1 at 1:00 PM ET in the Main Arena (Level 3, Ballroom) of the Walter E. Washington Convention Center. The Cardiovascular Research Foundation (CRF) is a nonprofit research and educational organization dedicated to helping doctors improve survival and quality of life for people suffering from heart and vascular disease. For over 25 years, CRF has helped pioneer innovations in interventional cardiology and has educated doctors on the latest treatments for heart disease. Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) is the annual scientific symposium of CRF and the world's premier educational meeting specializing in interventional cardiovascular medicine. Now in its 28th year, TCT features major medical research breakthroughs and gathers leading researchers and clinicians from around the world to present and discuss the latest evidence-based research in the field. For more information, visit http://www. and http://www. .

Takemura M.,Ishikawa Prefectural University | Maoka T.,Ishikawa Prefectural University | Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development | Misawa N.,Ishikawa Prefectural University
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2014

Carotenoid biosynthesis in bryophytes has yet to be clarified. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is known to be an early land plant and is an emerging bryophyte model. In order to gain insight into the evolution of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants, we studied carotenoid biosynthesis in this liverwort. As is the case in higher plants, liverwort thalli contain lutein and β-carotene, as major carotenoids, as well as zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin and 9′-cis-neoxanthin. Based on liverwort expressed sequence tag (EST)/cDNA and genome sequences, we isolated two cyclase genes encoding lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb) and lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYe), which were involved in the synthesis of β-carotene and α-carotene. These enzymes were phylogenetically positioned between corresponding proteins of a green alga (Chlorophyta) and higher plants. Functional analysis of the two genes was performed using a heterologous Escherichia coli expression system, in which the Pantoea ananatis lycopene biosynthesis genes were co-expressed. The results indicated liverwort LCYb activity for the synthesis of β-carotene from lycopene, which was the same as that of higher plants. On the other hand, liverwort LCYe was able to form two ε-rings from lycopene to ε-carotene via δ-carotene, which was different from the Arabidopsis LCYe enzyme which generates only one ε-ring from lycopene. © 2013 The Author.

Kusano Y.,Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts | Fukuhara M.,Okayama University of Science | Takada J.,Okayama University | Doi A.,Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts | And 2 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2010

Bizen stoneware, with the characteristic reddish hidasuki or "fire-marked" pattern, is one of Japans best known traditional ceramic works of art. The means of creating and controlling the various hues of the hidasuki pattern has remained a mystery to outsiders for about a thousand years; the methods were known only to master potters who served under generations of master potters before them. In this Account, we present the results of 30 years of study in which we investigated the microstructure and color-formation process in Bizen stoneware. We discovered that the hidasuki pattern results from the precipitation of corundum (α-Al2O3) and the subsequent epitaxial growth of hematite (α-Fe2O3) around it in a -50-m-thick liquid specifically formed in the ceramic surface. The epitaxial composites include hexagonal plate-like α-Fe 2O3/α-Al2O3/α-Fe 2O3 sandwiched particles and also surprisingly beautiful flower-like crystals, centered by hexagonal corundum crystals and decorated by several hexagonal hematite petal crystals. Bizen stoneware is produced from a unique clay that can only be mined from the Bizen area of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The clay has an unusually high Fe content compared with the traditional porcelain clay, as well as Si, Ca, Mg, and Na. Prior to firing, the Bizen works are wrapped in rice straw that was used originally as a separator to prevent adhesion. The hidasuki pattern only appears where the rice straw is in direct contact with the clay; the rice straw supplies potassium, which reduces the melting point of the ceramic surface, thereby converting the contact area into a site for these reactions to take place. The effect is almost accidental and is produced without the aid of any artificial glazing and enameling. An unexpected variety of substances, including metallic iron coated by graphite, Fe 3P, and ε-Fe2O3, were also found to appear at low oxygen partial pressures. Many of the techniques used by master potters are passed down through an apprenticeship system; an unfortunate consequence is that they are poorly documented. Moreover, the masters of these techniques are often unaware of the underlying chemical reactions that take place. Chemical studies of traditional processes can provide new inspiration to artists, allowing them to control the various factors and thus produce new works, and perhaps new functional materials. We studied the process of creating Bizen stoneware and then mimicked the color-producing process under controlled laboratory conditions, demonstrating the possibilities of the endeavor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Ganesan P.,Kyoto University | Noda K.,Kyoto University | Manabe Y.,Kyoto University | Ohkubo T.,NOF Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2011

Background: Bioactive marine molecules have recently received considerable attention for their nutraceutical characteristics. Considering the ever-increasing demand of nutraceuticals for anti-cancer therapy, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing effects of marine carotenoids, including siphonaxanthin, on human leukemia (HL-60) cells. Methods: Apoptotic effects were evaluated by cell viability assay, TUNEL assay, and caspase-3 activity. The expression of apoptosis-inducing death receptor-5 (DR5), Bcl-2 and Bax were assayed by Western blot analysis, and mRNA expression of GADD45α was assayed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Results: Siphonaxanthin potently inhibited the viability of HL-60 cells compared with the other carotenoids evaluated. In comparison with fucoxanthin, siphonaxanthin at a concentration of 20 μM markedly reduced cell viability (p < 0.05) as early as within 6 h of treatment. The effective apoptotic activity of siphonaxanthin was observed by increases in TUNEL-positive cells, and by increased chromatin condensation in HL-60 cells. This induction of apoptosis was associated with the decreased expression of Bcl-2, and the subsequently increased activation of caspase-3. In addition, siphonaxanthin up-regulated the expression of GADD45α and DR5. Conclusions: These data suggest that the dietary carotenoid siphonaxanthin could be potentially useful as a chemo-preventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent. General significance: Our findings demonstrate for the first time the novel functional property of siphonaxanthin as a potent inducer of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development | Akimoto N.,Kyoto University
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2011

Three new carotenoids: 7′,8′,9′,10′-tetrahydro- β-cryptoxanthin, 7′,8′-dihydrodiatoxanthin, and (3S,6S,6′S)-ε-cryptoxanthin were isolated from the skin, fins, and gonads of the Japanese common catfish, Silurus asotus, as minor carotenoids. Their structures were determined based on chemical and spectroscopic data. Furthermore, 9Z and/or 9′Z geometrical isomers of parasiloxanthin, 7′,8′-dihydroparasiloxanthin, and 7′,8′-dihydro-β- cryptoxanthin were characterized by 1H-NMR. © 2011 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development | Ochi J.,Kinki University | Mori M.,Kinki University | Sakagami Y.,Kinki University
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2012

The biochemical properties of carotenoids from 2 species of freshwater bivalve, namely, Unio douglasiae nipponensis and Anodonta lauta, and 2 species of freshwater snail, namely, Cipangopaludina chinensis laeta and Semisulcospira libertina, were investigated. Diatoxanthin and fucoxanthin were identified as major carotenoids in both bivalves. In contrast, lutein and zeaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids in C. chinensis laeta. In addition, a series of keto carotenoids was also identified in S. libertina. © 2012 by Japan Oil Chemists' Society.

Takaichi S.,Nippon Medical School | Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2015

Objectives: Neurosporene is a carotene and an intermediate in the synthesis of lycopene from phytoene. Its content in carotenogenic organisms is very low; hence, the complete assignments of its spectroscopic data, including NMR, are insufficient. Results: A purple bacterium of Rhodobacter sphaeroides G1C mutant had only one carotenoid. This carotenoid was extracted and purified using silica gel, DEAE-Toyopearl and C18-HPLC columns. It was identified using its absorption spectra, mass spectra, and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, including two-dimensional spectral analyses. Conclusion: The major carotenoid in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides G1C mutant was identified as neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-ψ,ψ-carotene) using spectroscopic measurements, including complete assignments of its 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Yamano Y.,Kobe Pharmaceutical University | Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development | Wada A.,Kobe Pharmaceutical University
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

In order to determine the absolute configuration of naturally occurring alloxanthin, a HPLC analytical method for three stereoisomers 1a-c was established by using a chiral column. Two authentic samples, (3S,3?S)- and meso-stereoisomers 1b and 1c, were chemically synthesized according to the method previously developed for (3R,3?R)-alloxanthin (1a). Application of this method to various alloxanthin specimens of aquatic animals demonstrated that those isolated from shellfishes, tunicates, and crucian carp are identical with (3R,3?R)-stereoisomer 1a, and unexpectedly those from lake shrimp, catfish, biwa goby, and biwa trout are mixtures of three stereoisomers of 1a-c. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Tsujiyama S.-I.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Nitta T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2011

To examine the biodegradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake) was cultivated in both liquid and quartz sand cultures. After incubation, discoloration of an iodide solution was observed in the filtrate recovered from the quartz sand culture, whereas discoloration was not observed in the filtrate recovered from the liquid culture. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the PVA recovered from the quartz sand culture was depolymerized and yielded low-molecular-weight portions. Infrared and ultraviolet spectrometry indicated that there was formation of carbonyl groups, and NMR analysis showed that the syndiotactic portions of PVA were preferably attacked. Based on these results, an unsubmerged cultivation of F. velutipes was considered suitable for the biodegradation of PVA, probably because the mycelium was sufficiently developed to produce PVA-degrading enzymes. © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development
Marine drugs | Year: 2011

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

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