Robert E.M.R.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
Robert E.M.R.,Royal Museum for Central Africa |
Schmitz N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel |
Schmitz N.,Royal Museum for Central Africa |
And 7 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2011
The analysis of tree rings in the tropics is less straightforward than in temperate areas with a demarcated unfavourable winter season. But especially in mangroves, the highly dynamic intertidal environment and the overriding ecological drivers therein have been a reason for questioning the existence of growth rings. This study aimed at casting light on growth rings in mangroves. In six mangrove species growing in Gazi Bay, Kenya (Sonneratia alba, Heritiera littoralis, Ceriops tagal, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Xylocarpus granatum and Lumnitzera racemosa), the occurrence of growth rings was examined. Growth rate of each species was determined based on a 1-year period using the cambial marking technique. The effect of climate was furthermore considered by comparing the results with a number of wood samples originating from contrasting climatic regions. We can conclude that for growth rings to appear in mangroves more than one condition has to be fulfilled, making general statements impossible and explaining the prevalent uncertainty. Climatic conditions that result in a range of soil water salinity experienced over the year are a prerequisite for the formation of growth rings. For species with an anatomy characterized by indistinct ring boundaries, this should be combined with a growth rate of at least 0.3 mm/year. The use of growth rings for age or growth rate determinations should thus be evaluated on a case by case basis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Cools N.,Research Institute for Nature and Forests INBO |
de Vos B.,Research Institute for Nature and Forests INBO
IForest | Year: 2011
In the study of air pollution effects on forest ecosystems, solid soil data such as cation exchange capacity, base saturation and other exchangeable cation fractions, soil texture, soil moisture, soil weathering rates, C/N ratio and other variables form an important information base for many air pollution impact models. This paper shows some of the possibilities and the limitations of the soil data that European countries collected on the systematic Level I and on the intensive and permanent Level II monitoring plots within the ICP Forests programme. The soil data date from a first inventory in the 1990s and from a second inventory more than 10 years later. Both surveys were conducted following a common manual on sampling and analysis of soil. An example of the changes in pH(CaCl2) and base saturation in the forest floor and mineral soil on more than 2000 plots till a depth of 80 cm between the two surveys is presented. In this period the pH(CaCl2) significantly increased in the very acid forest soils [with pH(CaCl2) below 4.0] but further decreased in forest soils with pH(CaCl2) above 4.0. Following the trend in pH, the base saturation increased in soils with a very low buffering capacity (soils with a base saturation below 20% in the first inventory) and decreased in forest soils with reference base saturation values above 20%. There is both a decrease of soil pH and base saturation in the forest floor of the Arenosols and Podzols. In the Podzols this decreasing trend could not be established in the mineral soil, though this decreasing trend persisted in a number of mineral soil layers of the Arenosols. The only consistent increasing trend of pH and base saturation when stratifying according to the WRB reference soil groups was seen in the forest floor of the Luvisols and Cambisols. © iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry.