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Abdollahi Z.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education | Elmadfa I.,University of Vienna | Djazayery A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Golalipour M.J.,Gorgan University of Medical science | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Background: Flour fortification with folic acid is one of the main strategies for improving folate status in women of childbearing age. No interventional trial on the efficacy of folic acid fortification has been conducted so far in Iran. Objectives: To study the effects of flour fortification with folic acid on any reduction in neural tube defects (NTDs) and folate status of women of childbearing age. Methods: In a longitudinal hospital-based study, 13,361 postpartum women were studied after admission for childbirth before and after fortification. In addition, two cross-sectional surveys were conducted before (2006) and after flour fortification (2008). The cluster sampling method was used and 580 women, 15-49 years old, were studied as a representative sample of Golestan province in the north of Iran. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure serum vitamin B 12, folate and plasma homocysteine. Sociodemographic data, health characteristics and dietary intake were determined. Results: The mean daily intakes of folate from natural food before and after flour fortification were 198.3 and 200.8 μg/day, respectively. The total folate intake increased significantly from 198.3 to 413.7 μg/day after fortification (p < 0.001). Folate intake increased by an average of 226 μg/day from fortified bread. The mean serum folate level increased from 13.6 to 18.1 nmol/l; folate deficiency decreased from 14.3 to 2.3% (p < 0.001). The incidence rate of NTDs declined by 31% (p < 0.01) in the post-fortification period (2.19 per 1,000 births; December 2007 to December 2008) compared to the pre-fortification period (3.16 per 1,000 births; September 2006 to July 2007). Conclusions: Implementation of mandatory flour fortification with folic acid can lead to a significant increase in serum folate and a significant decrease in NTDs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Khazaee-Pool M.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Majlessi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nedjat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazeri A.,Institute for Health science Research | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016

Background: Breast cancer risk assessment is a helpful method for estimating development of breast cancer at the population level. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants consisted of a group of 3,847 volunteers (mean ± SD age: 463 ± 7.59 years) in a convenience sample of women referred to health centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. The risk of breast cancer was estimated by applying the National Cancer Institute's online version of the Gail Risk Assessment Tool. Results: Some 24.9% of women reported having one first-degree female relative with breast cancer, with 8.05% of them having two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer. The mean five-year risk of breast cancer for all participants was 1.61±0.73%, and 9.36% of them had a five-year risk of breast cancer > 1.66%. The mean lifetime risk of breast cancer was 11.7±3.91%. Conclusions: The Gail model is useful for assessing probability of breast cancer in Iranian women. Based on the their breast cancer risk, women may decide to accept further screening services.


Aghadoost O.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Moradi N.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Aghadoost A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazeri A.,Institute for Health science Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Voice | Year: 2016

Objectives/Hypothesis: As the largest group of professional voice users, teachers are more likely to face voice disorders because of their specific job conditions. This study aimed to compare the quality of life in female teachers with and without voice complaints. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of samples of primary school female teachers with (n = 60) and without (n = 60) voice disorders. All teachers were serving in Tehran, Iran. Professional background information was obtained through interviews, and quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire. A comparison was made between the study groups to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of teachers was 44 (standard deviation = 3.95) years. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding their professional background. However, significant differences were observed between the two groups in all subscales of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, including physical and social functioning, role limitations because of either physical or emotional problems, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and mental health (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings of this study point to the effect of voice complaint on quality of life and showed that teachers with voice complaints suffer from poor health-related quality of life. Therefore, both voice-specific and unspecific assessment methods are required for clinical diagnostics. © 2016.


PubMed | Islamic Azad University at Kashan, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Institute for Health science Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation | Year: 2016

As the largest group of professional voice users, teachers are more likely to face voice disorders because of their specific job conditions. This study aimed to compare the quality of life in female teachers with and without voice complaints.This is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study.This was a cross-sectional study of samples of primary school female teachers with (n=60) and without (n=60) voice disorders. All teachers were serving in Tehran, Iran. Professional background information was obtained through interviews, and quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire. A comparison was made between the study groups to analyze the data.The mean age of teachers was 44 (standard deviation=3.95) years. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding their professional background. However, significant differences were observed between the two groups in all subscales of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, including physical and social functioning, role limitations because of either physical or emotional problems, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and mental health (P<0.05).Findings of this study point to the effect of voice complaint on quality of life and showed that teachers with voice complaints suffer from poor health-related quality of life. Therefore, both voice-specific and unspecific assessment methods are required for clinical diagnostics.


Khazaee-Pool M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazeri A.,Institute for Health science Research | Majlessi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rahimi Foroushani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
BMC Women's Health | Year: 2014

Background: Breast cancer-preventive behaviors are critical for community and women's health. Although many studies have addressed women's knowledge and attitudes toward breast cancer, little information is available about their experiences of breast cancer preventive behaviors. This study aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian women regarding preventive behaviors. Methods: This was a qualitative study. A sample of Iranian women aged 30 years and over was selected purposefully. Data collected through focus group and semi-structured audiotaped interviews and were analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The following five main themes emerged from the analysis: attitude toward breast cancer and preventive behaviors, stress management, healthy lifestyle, perceived social support and individual/environmental barriers. The findings showed that women were highly motivated to preventive behaviors of breast cancer but faced considerable challenges. Conclusions: The findings indicated that increased awareness, positive attitudes, stronger motivational factors, and fewer barriers toward preventive behaviors are most important parameters that might encourage women to practice breast cancer-preventive behaviors. © 2014 Khazaee-Pool et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ghazanfari Z.,Tarbiat Modares University | Niknami S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ghofranipour F.,Tarbiat Modares University | Larijani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2010

Background. Since microvascular and macrovascular complications are reduced through strict glycemic control, this study carried out to identify the factors that affect glycemic control. Methods. A cross-sectional design was carried out to examine the role of demographic, anthropometric, clinical and other relevant characteristics in a sample of 103 female diabetic patients in Tehran, Iran. Personal interviews were conducted to collect data. Then blood sampling collected and the patients were divided into two outcome groups (controlled and uncontrolled diabetes). The groups were compared on the basis of their characteristics using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. In all 103 patients were entered into the study. The mean age of patients was 46.38 (SD = 11.42) years. Overall, the mean value of HbA1c for the whole sample was 7.5 (SD = 2.35) and 56.3% had HbA1c ≥ 7%. The findings obtained from univariate analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between controlled and uncontrolled patients. However, in multivariate analysis the waist circumference was found to be a significant predictor of increased level of HbA1c (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1-1.08, P = 0.04). Conclusions. The findings suggest that increased level of HbA1c is associated with waist circumference that is a modifiable factor. It seems that physical activity might be a solution to overcome this health problem. A larger study to identify other factors also is recommended. © 2010 Ghazanfari et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ghazanfari Z.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ghazanfari Z.,Ilam University | Niknami S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ghofranipour F.,Tarbiat Modares University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Medical Research Methodology | Year: 2010

Background. This study carried out to develop a scale for assessing diabetic patients' perceptions about physical activity and to test its psychometric properties (The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients-PAQ-DP). Methods. An item pool extracted from the Theory of Planned Behavior literature was generated. Then an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing content validity index and content validity ratio. Consequently exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to indicate the scale constructs. In addition reliability analyses including internal consistency and test-retest analysis were carried out. Results. In all a sample of 127 women with diabetes participated in the study. Twenty-two items were initially extracted from the literature. A six-factor solution (containing 19 items) emerged as a result of an exploratory factor analysis namely: instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, affective attitude, self-identity, and intention explaining 60.30% of the variance observed. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory results for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.54 to 0.8) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.40 to 0.92). Conclusions. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP) is the first instrument that applies the Theory of Planned Behavior in its constructs. The findings indicated that the PAQ-DP is a reliable and valid measure for assessing physical activity perceptions and now is available and can be used in future studies. © 2010 Ghazanfari et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sadighi J.,Institute for Health science Research | Montazeri A.,Institute for Health science Research | Jahangiri K.,Institute for Health science Research
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: The aim of present study was to investigate the relation between the perception of population on healthy diet and lifestyle related behaviors. Methods: As part of national study on Iranian Health Perception, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Iran, 2010. A multistage sampling approach was applied to include a representative sample of population aged between 18 and 65 in the study. To collect data a designed questionnaire was administered. Results: In all 27,883 individuals (50.4% women, 48.8% men) were included in the study. The mean age of partici-pants was 34.6 years (SD = 12.8) and most were married (61%). The findings indicated that Iranian population often pay attention to healthy diet (39.5%), never smoke (74.9%), sometimes were doing exercise (29.5%), felt happy to some extent (39.5%), often care about themselves (47.1%) and rated their health as good (54.5%). Further analysis of the data showed that increased paying attention to healthy diet was associated with reduced smoking, more exercise, more self-care and happiness, and a better self-rated health status. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a healthy diet and other determinants of lifestyle are very integrated into each other. The efforts for changing any components of lifestyle can potentially change all individual related lifestyle behav-iors. Indeed, one of effective strategies in fostering healthy diet is fostering other healthy lifestyles. This holistic ap-proach might help decision-makers to design appropriate interventions in order to influence diet behaviors of people.


Khazaee-pool M.,Institute for Health science Research | Majlessi F.,Institute for Health science Research | Foroushani A.R.,Institute for Health science Research | Montazeri A.,Institute for Health science Research | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: In Iran, there are high rates of breast cancer. It is among the five most common cancers, the first among cancers diagnosed, and is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Iranian women. Objectives: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perception of breast cancer screening among Iranian women who have never had a mammograph. Materials and Methods: The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by means of content analysis method and purposive sampling of 16 women over the age of 30 years who had not undergone mammography using individual semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation. Results: After codification of data, three concept categories were achieved including: i) low awareness, ii) worries, and iii) lack of motivation. Conclusions: Although there is a tendency among Iranian women to participate in breast cancer screening, there is a powerful cultural belief that breasts are sexual organs that should not be discussed publicly. Due to the incidence of breast cancer in Iranian women, it is critical that breast awareness education be performed by health care experts to explore the concepts of breast cancer and breast cancer screening.


PubMed | Institute for Health science Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of public health | Year: 2015

The aim of present study was to investigate the relation between the perception of population on healthy diet and lifestyle related behaviors.As part of national study on Iranian Health Perception, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Iran, 2010. A multistage sampling approach was applied to include a representative sample of population aged between 18 and 65 in the study. To collect data a designed questionnaire was administered.In all 27,883 individuals (50.4% women, 48.8% men) were included in the study. The mean age of participants was 34.6 years (SD = 12.8) and most were married (61%). The findings indicated that Iranian population often pay attention to healthy diet (39.5%), never smoke (74.9%), sometimes were doing exercise (29.5%), felt happy to some extent (39.5%), often care about themselves (47.1%) and rated their health as good (54.5%). Further analysis of the data showed that increased paying attention to healthy diet was associated with reduced smoking, more exercise, more self-care and happiness, and a better self-rated health status.The findings suggest that a healthy diet and other determinants of lifestyle are very integrated into each other. The efforts for changing any components of lifestyle can potentially change all individual related lifestyle behaviors. Indeed, one of effective strategies in fostering healthy diet is fostering other healthy lifestyles. This holistic approach might help decision-makers to design appropriate interventions in order to influence diet behaviors of people.

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