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Lee Y.S.,Seoul National University | Markov N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Voloshina I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Argunov A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics

Background: The roe deer, Capreolus sp., is one of the most widespread meso-mammals of Palearctic distribution, and includes two species, the European roe deer, C. capreolus inhabiting mainly Europe, and the Siberian roe deer, C. pygargus, distributed throughout continental Asia. Although there are a number of genetic studies concerning European roe deer, the Siberian roe deer has been studied less, and none of these studies use microsatellite markers. Natural processes have led to genetic structuring in wild populations. To understand how these factors have affected genetic structure and connectivity of Siberian roe deer, we investigated variability at 12 microsatellite loci for Siberian roe deer from ten localities in Asia. Results: Moderate levels of genetic diversity (H E = 0.522 to 0.628) were found in all populations except in Jeju Island, South Korea, where the diversity was lowest(H E= 0.386). Western populations showed relatively low genetic diversity and higher degrees of genetic differentiation compared with eastern populations (mean Ar = 3.54 (east), 2.81 (west), mean F ST = 0.122). Bayesian-based clustering analysis revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (clusters) for Siberian roe deer, which comprise of the Southeastern group (Mainland Korea, Russian Far East, Trans-Baikal region and Northern part of Mongolia), Northwestern group (Western Siberia and Ural in Russia) and Jeju Island population. Genetic analyses including AMOVA (F RT = 0.200), Barrier and PCA also supported genetic differentiation among regions separated primarily by major mountain ridges, suggesting that mountains played a role in the genetic differentiation of Siberian roe deer. On the other hand, genetic evidence also suggests an ongoing migration that may facilitate genetic admixture at the border areas between two groups. Conclusions: Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an east-west gradient. The results suggest at least three distinct management units of roe deer in continental Asia, although genetic admixture is evident in some border areas. The insights obtained from this study shed light on management of Siberian roe deer in Asia and may be applied in conservation of local populations of Siberian roe deer. © 2015 Lee et al. Source

Choi S.K.,Seoul National University | Lee J.-E.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.-J.,National Institute of Ecology | Min M.-S.,Seoul National University | And 12 more authors.
BMC Genetics

Background: Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia.Results: Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea.Conclusions: Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. © 2014 Choi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Choi H.-J.,Changwon National University | Kaneko S.,Fukushima University | Yokogawa M.,Laboratory of Botany | Song G.-P.,Jeju Environment Research Institute Co. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Biology

The conservation status of Euchresta japonica Hook. f. ex Regel in Korea was investigated, with an emphasis on its genetic diversity. From field surveys, we obtained the only locality record for a wild population in Korea, which contained eight individuals. Genotyping was performed using nine microsatellite markers for all 20 remaining individuals, including those in ex situ collections. Among nine microsatellite loci that amplified within this group, five showed polymorphism with low hererozygosities, and a total of 12 multilocus genotypes were detected. Wild-specific alleles were detected in two individuals, and ex situ-specific alleles were detected in six individuals. Five individuals proved to have individual-specific alleles. The Korean population was also distinguished from the previously reported Japanese population by different alleles and higher diversity. To conserve this species more effectively in Korea, we recommend the following: (1) fencing the remaining wild population; (2) no relocation of wild individuals, as nine ex situ plants are already available; (3) complete ex situ conservation of all genetic diversity via clonal propagation of wild individuals; and (4) continuous protection and monitoring of the wild population. © 2013 Korean Society of Plant Biologists and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Hyun T.K.,Chungbuk National University | Kim H.-C.,Research Institute for Hallasan | Ko Y.-J.,Jeju National University | Kim J.-S.,Jeju National University
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) is a wild berry commonly found in the northern hemisphere. Crowberry fruits have been suggested as good resources for functional applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, but the high polyphenolic content in crowberry leaves also indicates crowberry aerial parts as potential dietary health supplements. In this study, therefore, the biological activities of the aerial parts of Korean crowberry (E. nigrum var. japonicum) were investigated. Antioxidant activity was measured by three different assays on DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacities. Dose-dependent antioxidant activities were exhibited by crude methanol extract and its fractions, suggesting that the crude methanol extract and EtOAc fraction possessed strong antioxidant activities and capacities. In addition, the crude methanol extract and EtOAc strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity and suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediator and nitrite oxide from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These findings provide valuable evidence for the potential of such parts as good dietary sources of natural antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory components, suggesting that using the non-edible parts (e.g., leaves and stems) of crowberry can be a potential natural avenue for improving human health. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Hyun T.K.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim H.-C.,Research Institute for Hallasan | Kim J.-S.,Jeju National University
Industrial Crops and Products

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities of methanol extract of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak and those of its partitioned fractions, including hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous. The antioxidant activities of the TQC extract were measured by 1,1-dephenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging and a reducing power assay. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated by α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. The results suggested that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of the MeOH crude extract possessed strong antioxidant activity and capacity. In addition, the EtOAc fraction showed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Kocuria rhizophila (MIC = 63 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC = 63 μg/ml). The findings also indicated that the MeOH crude extract and its EtOAc fraction contained strong antidiabetic activity. HPLC analysis identified (-)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and rosmarinic acid as the active compounds in the TQC extract. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in the hexane fraction was positively associated with the amount of thymol. Taken together, these results suggest that the TQC extract could be exploited as an ingredient in antioxidant and antidiabetic supplements and in drugs to treat infectious diseases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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