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Riad P.H.S.,Ain Shams University | Riad P.H.S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Billib M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Hassan A.A.,Ain Shams University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2011

With population increase, lack of conventional fresh water resources and uncertainties due to climate change, there is growing interest in the arid and semi-arid areas to increase groundwater recharge with recycled water. Finding the best locations for artificial recharge of groundwater in such areas is one of the most crucial design steps to guarantee the long life and the sustainability of these projects. This study presents two ways to go about performing analysis; creating a suitability map to find out the suitability of every location on the map and another way is querying the created data sets to obtain a Boolean result of true or false map. These techniques have been applied on Sadat Industrial City which is located in a semi arid area in the western desert fringes of The Nile delta in the north west of Egypt. Thematic layers for number of parameters were prepared from some maps and satellite images and they have been classified, weighted and integrated in ArcGIS environment. By the means of the overlay weighted model in ArcGIS a suitability map which is classified into number of priority zones was obtained and it could be compared with the obtained true-false map of Boolean logic. Both methods suggested mostly the northern parts of the city for groundwater recharge; however the weighted model could give more accurate suitability map while Boolean logic suggested wider ranges of areas. This study recommends Boolean logic as a first estimator for locating the best locations as it is easier and not time consuming, while the overlay weighted model for more accurate results. © 2011 Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering (JUEE). All rights reserved.

Sallam O.M.,Research Institute for Groundwater | Sallam O.M.,Environment Agency
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2015

Deep foundations of densely distributed buildings in shallow aquifers may modify the overall hydraulic parameters and change the flow of groundwater systems. The purpose of this paper is to present a groundwater model for investigating the changes to groundwater systems in shallow aquifers as a result of buildings foundations. The Holy Mosque area of Makkah City in Saudi Arabia was selected for this study because it contains the Holy Mosque and the Holy Well, which is called the Zamzam Well. Consequently, our groundwater model will be an effective tool to ensure that new building foundations will not cause unacceptable changes to the groundwater system in the study area. Thus, the design of building foundations should be formulated in such a way that its impacts to the groundwater flow are minimized. Based on our study, we concluded that building foundation depths at the north of the Holly Mosque may reduce water levels in the Zamzam Well by 7.6 m when the foundation depth is 12 m. Conversely, building foundation depths at the south of the Holy Mosque may increase groundwater levels in the Zamzam Well by 4.4 m when the foundation depth is 12 m. Our primary recommendation is to continuously update, recalibrate, and rerun the model to increase its effectiveness as a tool for future building foundation design in the study area. © 2014, Saudi Society for Geosciences.

Sallam O.M.,Research Institute for Groundwater | Sallam O.M.,Environment Agency
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385. CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167. CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15. BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63. BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Dawoud M.A.,Research Institute for Groundwater | Dawoud M.A.,Environment Agency | Ismail S.S.,Nile Research Institute
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2013

Surface water bodies interact with underlying aquifer systems, creating a complex flow system and flow paths. In general, a surface water body may be classified as gaining, losing, or flow through on the basis of its interaction with the surrounding aquifer. In the Nile Valley, the quaternary aquifer system is in a direct hydraulic interaction with the River Nile, canals, and drains. In this study, a regional numerical model was developed and used to evaluate the interaction between surface water bodies and the quaternary aquifer system in the Nile Valley. The solution is considered for a quasi three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater flow. The model used simulates the interaction between surface water bodies and groundwater for saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. In addition, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate different extreme (high and low) scenarios for Nile surface water levels along the distance between Old Aswan Dam and Delta Barrages. Model calibration shows close results, and the model was used to simulate surface water levels. Results indicate that the Nile River acts as a drain for the quaternary aquifer (gaining water from the aquifer), although in the reaches upstream of the main barrages, the Nile loses the water, recharging the aquifer. All other main canals are recharging the aquifer system. The seepage rate depends mainly on the difference in piezometric head between the aquifer system and surface water bodies, as well as the hydraulic conductance of the base layer sediments of the surface water body. The model was used to evaluate the regional water balance for the Nile Valley and to estimate the surface water bodies' gains and losses. © 2011 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

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