Research Institute for Fruits Growing

Piteşti, Romania

Research Institute for Fruits Growing

Piteşti, Romania
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Isac V.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing | Coman M.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing
Fruit Growing Research | Year: 2012

Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagation". In horticulture, the micropropagation is the most recent method used for the commercial plant propagation as a biotechnology application. At Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Arges strawberry was one of the first plant species introduced in the in vitro culture. In the `90, extensive research in many other fruit species, have to develop rapid and efficient procedures for mass clonal propagation. Also, sustained efforts are towards the development and verifying of biotechnology procedures for efficient propagation of the new created fruit varieties. Propagation systems approved by actual legislation regarding production of fruit tree planting material include also micropropagation as propagation technique. Data presented in this paper describe validated protocols for micropropagation of some varieties of strawberry and raspberry. These protocols tested had favorable results for more than five years and can thus be considered validated. This paper presents the data regarding aseptic cultures establishment, culture media, hormone combinations, culture conditions and specific technical parameters for fruit species and the role and importance of tissue culture in certification schemes.


Mladin P.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing | Mladin G.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing | Oprea E.,University of Bucharest | Radulescu M.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing | Nicola C.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

Lonicera caerulea var. kamschatica is called popular in countries where it is cultivated,bluehoneysuckle, and we call it,fruiting lonicera,. This is one of the few species of Lonicera with edible fruits. The blue-honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. kamschatica) and chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) are interesting fruit species both for fruit producing plantations and ornamental purposes. Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea is the variety of barberry with ornamental purposes and a great fruiting potential, by taking advantage of abundant yield and various phytochemicals in fruit content. Lonicera selections fruit trees obtained at the Institute Pitesti have noted a number of features, such as early ripening fruit, winter frost resistance, adaptability to different climatic conditions, rich in anthocyanins berries and a high antioxidant activity (Oprea et al., 2002). Chockberry is a fruiting shrub, particularly important as natural source for the coloring of the foods. After some early studies, it was discovered that red barberry fruits had the highest content of total acidity in comparison with all other fruits, thus constituting an important natural source of organic acids (Mladin G. et al., 1996). Anthocyanins and tannins are biochemical compounds playing a major role in the formation of fruit color, taste, as well as the quality of fruits derivatives. Also, they have in the same time, beneficial effects for human health due to the antioxidant activities and protecting blood vessels. This study aimed to evaluate a genetic material (consisting of selections from these three species) in terms of biochemical compounds content in fruits, in order to complete the biochemical characterization of the genotypes and identifying those with hig, medium or lower content giving fruit taste as pleasant, with moderate to low astringency. In the period 2004-2007 were studied 24 blue-honeysuckle selections, three selections of barberry and one variety of chockberry. Methods for determining these compounds were the usual spectrophotometric for anthocyanins (by the method of Fuleki and Francis, 1968) and HPTLC, for four lonicera selections and by the Lowenthal-Neubeur, 1977, procedure for tannins. Total anthocyanin content in the fruits of Lonicera varied widely, from 206.0 mg% to 579.0 mg%. Nero chockeberry variety accumulated in fruits high anthocyanins, 509, 16 mg%. Barberry selections have accumulated much smaller amounts of anthocyanins, between 71.28 mg % and 79, 43 mg%. The genotypes of Lonicera had tannin content between 0, 218% and 0, 429%. Barberry selections were marked by high content of tannins with an average from 0.610% to 0.990%, the ckockberry variety Nero with an average of 0.993%. The content of anthocyanins and tannins in the fruit varied from one to another genotype, as well as from one to another climatic year.


Isac V.,Research Institute for Fruits Growing | Cristea C.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2011

Tissue culture contamination is a constant problem which frequently originates with the introduction into culture of explants contaminated with endophytic micro-organisms or surface sterilization resistant micro-organisms. Heterotrophic plant tissue culture media are capable of supporting the growth of many common environmental micro-organisms. Microbial contaminations often affect very severely tissue culture studies and results. Microbes which contaminate the cultures and the laboratory environment and equipments are species of bacteria, fungus and viruses. This study aimed the investigation and identification of microbial contamination in tissue culture laboratory of RIFG Pitesti. Eight microbial contaminants (consisting of four fungi and four bacteria) were found associated with the laboratory environments and the tissue culture plants. The bacterial contaminations include Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus and Enterobacter spp. Fungal contaminants like Penicillium spp., Penicillium citrin and Aspergillus spp., were found associated with indoor air. Yeast Geotrichum was also found associated with tissue culture plants.

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