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Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Chitu E.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Maracineni
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2015

The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey. © 2015 ISB Source


Paltineanu C.,National Research Institute for Soil Science | Tanasescu N.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Maracineni | Chitu E.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Maracineni
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2016

The purpose of this paper is to test uniformity of some soil physical properties in loamy-textured and course-textured soils within intensive orchards and to find out the specific pattern, in order to use it in general orchard management. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from both in-row (IR) and inter-row (ITR) positions within a transect section between two adjacent tree rows. Within this transect there were nine vertical sampling sections spaced 0.5 m apart. Soil bulk density, macro-porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity and penetration resistance were determined. The pattern of soil physical properties in loamy-sandy and sandy-loamy textured soils is different in intensive orchards from that of arable soils with homogeneous tillage, showing thus the dynamics of soil state. The soil physical properties studied were found to be less favorable to plants in ITR than in IR due to the technological traffic in such environments, after only six years since the orchards were established. The former deep plowing and deep loosening seem to still have favorable consequences for the 0.5 m topsoil physical state in orchards. This shows the beneficial effects of these works that should be recommended whenever such plantations are established on such compacted soils. Cutting tree roots can also be done at a distance of 0.5-0.7 m away from tree rows if an increased control on the irrigation regime and wetted soil volume is required for drip irrigation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Paltineanu C.,National Research Institute for Soil Science | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Gavat C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Chitu E.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Maracineni | And 5 more authors.
International Agrophysics | Year: 2016

The available information on root system in fully mature peach orchards in semi-arid regions is insufficient. This paper presents a study on the root system density in an irrigated peach orchard from Dobrogea, Romania, using the trench technique. The old orchard has clean cultivation in inter-row and in-row. The objectives of the study were to: test the hypothesis that the roots of fully mature peach trees occupy the whole soil volume; find out if root repulsive effect of adjacent plants occurred for the rootstocks and soil conditions; find relationships between root system and soil properties and analyse soil state trend. Some soil physical properties were significantly deteriorated in inter-row versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction induced by technological traffic. Density of total roots was higher in-row than inter-row, but the differences were not significant. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from tree trunks. Root density correlated with some soil properties. No repulsive effect of the roots of adjacent peach trees was noted. The decrease of root density with distance from trunk can be used in optimising tree arrangement. The conclusions could also be used in countries with similar growth conditions. © 2016 Cristian Paltineanu et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2016. Source


Paltineanu C.,National Research Institute for Soil Science | Septar L.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Gavat C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta | Emil C.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Maracineni | And 6 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Information on the root system of fully mature apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) orchards is scarce. This paper deals with the root system of apricot trees in a semi-arid region of Romania. The 15-year old orchard was established with Hungarian Best variety grafted on Constanta 14 generative rootstock. Sprinkler irrigation was applied under a mild water stress regime. The purpose of this paper was to: (1) test the hypothesis that the roots of trees planted within a certain layout occupy the whole soil space, (2) describe the spatial distribution of root density using the trench technique, and (3) emphasize the rootedness of apricot in this soil type. Soil samples were taken from both in row (IR) and inter-row (ITR) positions to determine soil properties. Some physical properties were deteriorated in ITR versus IR, mainly due to soil compaction induced by the technological traffic. The root density was almost similar in ITR and IR, decreasing with both soil depth and distance from the tree trunk, and stronger correlations were obtained with soil depth. The roots of apricot trees are mainly concentrated within 0.5 m depth and occupy the entire soil space between trees, showing the highest density at about 1 m from the tree trunk. No root avoidance for neighboring trees was found. The horizontal decrease in root density can be used in optimizing tree arrangement in orchards. Canopy shape, light penetration and groundcover management system are also important in this decision. The results could be used in countries with similar environments. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

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