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Toth M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Voigt E.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Baric B.,University of Zagreb | Pajac I.,University of Zagreb | And 3 more authors.
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica | Year: 2014

The addition of the synthetic Rhagoletis lure (consisting of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate, developed previously for Rhagoletis cerasi L.) to fluorescent yellow sticky traps invariably increased catches of the European cherry fruit fly (R. cerasi), eastern cherry fruit fly (R. cingulata Loew.), walnut husk fly (R. completa Cresson) and the sunflower maggot (Strauzia longipennis Wiedemann). Thus in detection and monitoring surveys, where sensitivity of the trap is highly important, the use of traps with synthetic lure added is strongly recommended. Results of the present study with S. longipennis suggest that the synthetic Rhagoletis lure can be useful also in trapping non-Rhagoletis tephritid flies in future research efforts. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó.

Robinson T.L.,Cornell University | Bujdoso G.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Reginato G.,University of Chile
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The effect of pruning as a crop regulation strategy to improve fruit size of the self fertile cherry cultivars, 'Sweetheart' and 'Lapins' or the non-self fertile cultivar 'Hedelfingen' was evaluated at Geneva, NY, USA in 2008 and 2009. Whole tree pruning treatments were applied to mature 'Sweetheart' in 2008 and to both 'Sweetheart' and 'Lapins' in 2009 on Gisela 5 and 6 rootstocks trained to either the Vertical Axis or Central Leader systems at bud swell in the spring. Pruning treatments were applied to mature 'Hedelfingen' on 14 rootstocks in 2009. Treatments consisted of light pruning (control), removal of short shoots with less than 25cm growth, spur extinction (removal of 30% of the spurs), heading back of all fruiting branches by 30% and the combination of spur extinction pruning plus removal of short shoots with less than 25 cm growth. The greatest increase in leaf to fruit ratio was with the spur extinction treatment and the combination of spur extinction plus removal of short shoots treatment. Fruit size was increased most by spur extinction and the combination of spur extinction pruning plus the removal of short shoots. Fruit size was highly dependant on crop load and leaf area per fruit. With 'Hedelfingen' there were large differences in fruit size among rootstocks. The relationship of leaf area:fruit ratio and fruit size was different for rootstocks which produce small fruit size than those that produce large fruits regardless of crop load indicating that the problem with small fruit size of some stocks cannot be solved solely by crop load adjustment.

Lugasi A.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Hovari J.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Kadar G.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science | Denes F.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2011

For prevention of non-infectious diseases such as cancer, and cardiovascular disorders consumption of more and more fruits and vegetables is highly advised. Fruits of Ribes and Rubus species are very popular in Hungary. Antioxidant properties of these fruits are well known, but the values of the characteristics depend on several factors including species, cultivars, soil and climate conditions, water and nutrition supply, and so on. Phenolics in several cultivars of raspberry, blackberry and currants grown in Hungary were measured. Total polyphenols and anthocyanins were detected by spectrophotometric methods while flavonoids including apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and also ellagic acid were quantified by RP-HPLC technique. Total polyphenol contents of raspberry (yellow and red cultivars), blackberry and currants (white, red and black cultivars) were 219, 244, 379, 333, 192 and 533 mg/100 g, respectively. The concentrations of anthocyanins in the same order were 1.0, 41.9, 145, 0.2, 46 and 354 mg/100 g. Apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol could not been detected in any of the samples. Ellagic acid (2.0 to 23.7 mg/100 g) could be measured in white and red raspberries, in blackberries, and in some red and white currant cultivars. Quercetin could be detected in all berry species ranging from 0.1 to 14.4 mg/100 g. Measurable amount of myricetin was observed only in black currant cultivars between 1.5 and 7.7 mg/100 g. Polyphenols including flavonoids and anthocyanins in berry fruits are important forms of natural antioxidants. These molecules play essential role in the prevention of diseases in the pathomechanism of which free radicals are involved. Berry fruits are good sources of antioxidants consumed either in fresh or in processed forms because of great susceptibility of polyphenols to heat and other physicochemical processes.

Bujdoso G.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Bujdoso G.,Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Hrotko K.,Corvinus University of Budapest
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Evaluation of ten dwarfing rootstocks ('Bogdány', Cerasus mahaleb 'Cemany', 'Egervár', 'Érdi V', 'Korponay', 'Magyar', 'SM 11/4', 'Vadcseresznye C. 2493', 'GiSelA 6', control: 'INRA SL 64' rootstock) combined with sweet cherry cultivars 'Petrus?', 'Vera?', 'Carmen?' have been studied among non-irrigated conditions. After four years data, it can be considered that 'Petrus' had small fruit size because diameter of examined fruits did not reach 24 to 26 mm in diameter. This size is not the competitive fraction on the market. Other examined sweet cherry varieties ('Vera' and 'Carmen') produced bigger fruit size compared to 'Petrus'. Fruit size is important for sweet cherry because it establishes the market price. To summarize results collected during the last four vegetation periods, the following groups can be considered on the basis of growth of rootstock/scion combinations: 'SL 64', 'Cemany', 'Érdi V', 'SM 11/4', and 'Bodgány' had strong vigor, 'Korponay' seedling rootstock, 'Magyar', and 'Egervár' showed medium vigor, while 'GiSelA 6' was semi dwarf. Cerasus avium 'C. 2493' has not been evaluated yet, because it was too early to claim its behavior. 'Petrus' on 'Cemany', 'Egervár', and 'GiSelA 6' produced the highest cumulated yield index, 'Vera' had the best cumulated yield on 'C. 2493' and 'Korponay' as well as 'Carmen' had good results on 'Egervár'. Regarding Value-Yield Index, 'Carmen' reported the best performance due to its large fruit diameter.

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