McDonough K.,Procter and Gamble |
Casteel K.,Procter and Gamble |
Zoller A.,Procter and Gamble |
Wehmeyer K.,Procter and Gamble |
And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2017
OTNE [1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one; trade name Iso E Super] is a fragrance ingredient commonly used in consumer products which are disposed down the drain. This research measured effluent and sludge concentrations of OTNE at 44 US wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The mean effluent and sludge concentrations were 0.69 ± 0.65 μg/L and 20.6 ± 33.8 mg/kg dw respectively. Distribution of OTNE effluent concentrations and dilution factors were used to predict surface water and sediment concentrations and distributions of OTNE sludge concentrations and loading rates were used to predict terrestrial concentrations. The 90th percentile concentration of OTNE in US WWTP mixing zones was predicted to be 0.04 and 0.85 μg/L under mean and 7Q10 low flow (lowest river flow occurring over a 7 day period every 10 years) conditions respectively. The 90th percentile sediment concentrations under mean and 7Q10 low flow conditions were predicted to be 0.081 and 1.6 mg/kg dw respectively. Based on current US sludge application practices, the 90th percentile OTNE terrestrial concentration was 1.38 mg/kg dw. The probability of OTNE concentrations being below the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic and sediment compartments was greater than 99%. For the terrestrial compartment, the probability of OTNE concentrations being lower than the PNEC was 97% for current US sludge application practices. Based on the results of this study, OTNE concentrations in US WWTP effluent and sludge do not pose an ecological risk to aquatic, sediment and terrestrial organisms. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Selck H.,Roskilde University |
Drouillard K.,University of Windsor |
Eisenreich K.,University of Maryland College Park |
Koelmans A.A.,Wageningen University |
And 8 more authors.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2012
In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls for accurate error analysis. Yet, attempts to quantify and compare propagation of error in bioaccumulation metrics across species and chemicals are rare. Here, we quantitatively assessed the combined influence of physicochemical, physiological, ecological, and environmental parameters known to affect bioaccumulation for 4 species and 2 chemicals, to assess whether uncertainty in these factors can explain the observed differences among laboratory and field studies. The organisms evaluated in simulations including mayfly larvae, depositfeeding polychaetes, yellow perch, and little owl represented a range of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model was improved by accounting for bioavailability and absorption efficiency limitations, due to the presence of black carbon in sediment, and was used for probabilistic modeling of variability and propagation of error. Results showed that at lower trophic levels (mayfly and polychaete), variability in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation assessment is reduced most by improved identification of food sources as well as by accounting for the chemical bioavailability in food components. Improvements in the accuracy of aqueous exposure appear to be less relevant when applied to moderate to highly hydrophobic compounds, because this route contributes only marginally to total uptake. The determination of chemical bioavailability and the increase in understanding and qualifying the role of sediment components (black carbon, labile organic matter, and the like) on chemical absorption efficiencies has been identified as a key next steps. © 2011 SETAC.
Peiser M.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment |
Tralau T.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment |
Heidler J.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment |
Api A.M.,Research Institute for Fragrance Materials |
And 19 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2012
Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments in the field of contact dermatitis. This included the epidemiology and molecular biology of contact allergy, as well as the development of new in vitro methods. Furthermore, it considered regulatory aspects aiming to reduce exposure to contact sensitisers. An estimated 15-20% of the general population suffers from contact allergy. Workplace exposure, age, sex, use of consumer products and genetic predispositions were identified as the most important risk factors. Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme-mediated oxidation for the activation of chemicals, the mechanisms through which hapten-protein conjugates are formed and the development of novel in vitro strategies for the identification of skin-sensitising chemicals. Dendritic cell cultures and structure-activity relationships are being developed to identify potential contact allergens. However, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) presently remains the validated method of choice for hazard identification and characterisation. At the workshop the use of the LLNA for regulatory purposes and for quantitative risk assessment was also discussed. © The Author(s) 2011.
PubMed | Givaudan, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, B Safe Toxicology Consulting, Procter and Gamble and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015
Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subjects frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.
PubMed | Givaudan, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, B Safe Toxicology Consulting, Procter and Gamble and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015
Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.
PubMed | Procter and Gamble, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials and International Flavors and Fragrances Inc.
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016
OTNE [1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one; trade name Iso E Super] is a fragrance ingredient commonly used in consumer products which are disposed down the drain. This research measured effluent and sludge concentrations of OTNE at 44 US wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The mean effluent and sludge concentrations were 0.690.65g/L and 20.633.8mg/kg dw respectively. Distribution of OTNE effluent concentrations and dilution factors were used to predict surface water and sediment concentrations and distributions of OTNE sludge concentrations and loading rates were used to predict terrestrial concentrations. The 90th percentile concentration of OTNE in US WWTP mixing zones was predicted to be 0.04 and 0.85g/L under mean and 7Q10 low flow (lowest river flow occurring over a 7 day period every 10 years) conditions respectively. The 90th percentile sediment concentrations under mean and 7Q10 low flow conditions were predicted to be 0.081 and 1.6mg/kg dw respectively. Based on current US sludge application practices, the 90th percentile OTNE terrestrial concentration was 1.38mg/kg dw. The probability of OTNE concentrations being below the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic and sediment compartments was greater than 99%. For the terrestrial compartment, the probability of OTNE concentrations being lower than the PNEC was 97% for current US sludge application practices. Based on the results of this study, OTNE concentrations in US WWTP effluent and sludge do not pose an ecological risk to aquatic, sediment and terrestrial organisms.
Dai L.,Roskilde University |
Selck H.,Roskilde University |
Salvito D.,Research Institute for Fragrance Materials |
Forbes V.E.,Roskilde University |
Forbes V.E.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012
Fragrance materials, such as acetyl cedrene (AC), are of environmental concern because they are continuously released to aquatic systems down the drain. In the present study, Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella capitata species I) was exposed to AC-amended sediment at two population densities corresponding to 44,000 and 88,000worms/m2. The fate of AC in systems with worms was compared to that in identical systems without worms. We examined the toxicity of AC on worm survival, growth, and feeding rate, and quantified the fate of AC in exposure systems by mass balance. Worm survival was close to 100% in all treatments. Acetyl cedrene had some positive effects on worm growth, but not feeding, whereas density had negative effects on both growth and feeding rates. After 14 d, the sediment concentration of AC was reduced by 88 to 99% in the presence of worms, whereas sediment AC concentration was reduced by 13 to 31% or less in the absence of worms. Acetyl cedrene was detected in fecal pellets, at low concentrations compared to the initial concentration in the sediment, but not in worm tissue, suggesting that ingested AC is bioavailable to Capitella teleta and that worms can biotransform sediment-associated AC effectively. © 2012 SETAC.
Vethanayagam D.,University of Alberta |
Vliagoftis H.,University of Alberta |
Mah D.,University of Alberta |
Beach J.,University of Alberta |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2013
Objective: Many household products contain fragrances. Little is known about exposure to fragrances on human health, particularly within the airways. This study aimed to evaluate how common household fragrance products (i.e. air fresheners, cleaning products) affect people with asthma, who frequently report sensitivity to these products. Many of these products have volatile organic compounds or semi-volatile organic compounds. This study evaluated nine fragrance materials in an aerosol formulation to assess effects on airway physiology, airway inflammation and symptom perception in normal controls and those with asthma. Methods: The effects of fragrances were evaluated in people without asthma, people with mild asthma and people with moderate asthma in a four-way crossover placebo-controlled study. Subjects were exposed twice to a fragranced aerosol and twice to a placebo aerosol (15 and 30min each). Subjects completed a questionnaire for 29 symptoms during and up to 3h after each exposure scenario. Spirometry was performed prior to and 3h post-exposure; sputum induction was conducted 3h post-exposure. Results: Nasal symptoms showed the greatest frequency of response in all three subject groups, and moderate asthmatics reported the greatest symptom severity and symptom types. No significant differences were noted in physiology or cellular inflammation. Conclusion: A trend for increased symptoms was noted in moderate asthmatics, suggesting that asthma severity may play a factor in fragrance sensitivity. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Scognamiglio J.,Research Institute for Fragrance Materials |
Letizia C.S.,Research Institute for Fragrance Materials |
Api A.M.,Research Institute for Fragrance Materials
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013
A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,5,6-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,5,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | February 24, 2017
BPM-D announces the release of the new book: “High Performance through Business Process Management – Strategy Execution in a Digital World,” authored by Dr. Mathias Kirchmer, Managing Director and Co-CEO of BPM-D. This is the third edition of the “High Performance” book, publicly available early March. This next level management book presents value-driven business process management as a successful method to turn strategy into people and technology-based execution, quickly and at minimal risk. It explains how to achieve high performance effectively in a digital business environment using the opportunities and avoiding the threads of Digitalization. The author discusses topics like process innovation, digital technology and people aspects, process governance, internationalization, emerging processes and the unique situation in mid-market organizations. It concludes with a comprehensive case study and unique discussion about what process engineers can learn from jazz musicians. The book is positioned through a foreword by Sisir Padhy, Vice President Process Excellence & Innovation from Verizon. Other endorsements are from Jim Romine, President of the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM), Ronan Loaec, CIO North America, Groupe Savencia, Deb Boykin, Director of Business Process Management at Pfizer and Pat Paladino, Senior Strategy Manager at TELUS Communications. "This is another thought leader contribution of BPM-D for the process management and digitalization community. I am looking forward to using the new ideas and findings to create even more value for our clients and help executives, practitioners and students to shape their thinking about the topics,” commented Dr. Mathias Kirchmer. BPM-D® (http://www.bpm-d.com) partners with its clients to achieve productivity and performance through cross-functional business and information technology initiatives. It is the expert company to set up and apply a business process management discipline that provides significant value through systematic strategy execution in a digital world. The business was established based on the years of experience of its co-founders in delivering components of this vision: process management strategy; process and data governance; rapid process improvement; standardization, client-journey mapping, value-driven modeling & repositories; and change enablement to organizations, both large and small. All BPM-D offerings are based on the patent pending BPM-D Framework that enables fast results at a low risk. The offerings support a focused and dynamic approach to process management and improvement. This is pragmatic and outcome-based, linking to business strategy and working to translate this into execution, faster and more reliably. BPM-D also supports organizations to select and manage other consulting partners, especially for larger process-led transformations. We help define and balance the roles of the internal BPM-Discipline and the externally acquired services to ensure that programs deliver immediate improvement and a sustainable ability to realize value from change. For small and medium sized software and consulting companies we leverage our years of industry experience to assist in defining and executing growth and internationalization plans. We provide support in all areas of the BPM-Discipline critical to the success of our clients.