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Kavgaci A.,Southwest Research Institute | Arslan M.,Research Institute for Forest Soil and Ecology | Bingol U.,Ankara University | Erdogan N.,Mehmet Akif Ersoy University | Carni A.,University of Nova Gorica
Biologia | Year: 2012

Floristic differentiation of the oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests in Turkey and Bulgaria was investigated and the role of geographical and topographical factors in this differentiation was assessed. After geographical and ecological stratification of the available 922 relevés, 288 remained. Classification, by applying cluster analysis, resulted in seven vegetation units defined by species composition which represent the geographical and ecological variation of Fagus orientalis forests. DCA ordination was applied to these units by passively projecting their chorological structure, as supplementary variables. For more detailed interpretation of vegetation types with similar geographic distribution patterns, PCA was applied by passively projecting the chorological elements, life-forms and topographical factors as supplementary variables. Seven vegetation units representing the geographical and ecological variety of Fagus orientalis forests were described. Four vegetation units represent the core area of Fagus orientalis distribution on the western and middle coast of the Black Sea region (Euxine region); the remaining three types represent the distribution in the eastern Black Sea region (Colchic region), the distribution in western and southern Anatolia under the influence of the Mediterranean climate and the distribution in the transitional zone from the Euxine region to the continental parts of Inner Anatolia, respectively. The four vegetation types in Euxine region reflect the decreasing effect of Black Sea towards Inner Anatolia, as well as altitudinal differences, except the forest type representing forests on calcareous sites. The other three vegetation units represent ravine, lowland to montane and altimontane forests in Euxine region. Fagus orientalis forests could be distinguished by their floristic composition, their chorological elements and life-forms spectra, which reflect a geographical and ecological gradients. © 2012 © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Demir M.,Istanbul University | Makineci E.,Istanbul University | Cornez A.,Research Institute for Forest Soil and Ecology | Yilmaz E.,Istanbul University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot The mass (kg he-1) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density, compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities Of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover, forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg andZn contents In forestfloorsamples were found'to be considerably lowerforthe skidroadthan forthe undisturbed area. No significant differences were found In soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India). Source


Lee J.,Korea University | Tolunay D.,Istanbul University | Makineci E.,Istanbul University | Comez A.,Research Institute for Forest Soil and Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2016

• Key messageSimulated and observed carbon stocks in Scots pine forests varied considerably with stand age. The contribution of biomass to the total forest carbon stocks increased and that of dead organic matter decreased with increasing stand age. • Context Understanding changes in forest carbon stocks over time is important to estimate carbon inventory. Although Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a main species in Turkey, studies on such changes are still lacking. • Aims We aimed to estimate the changes in carbon stocks, with stand age, of Scots pine stands in Turkey using field work data and a forest carbon model (FBDC model). • Methods Biomass and dead organic matter carbon stocks were investigated to adjust the forest carbon model and to verify the model estimates. Forest carbon stocks with regards to stand age were simulated. • Results The simulated carbon stocks were generally in clear agreement with the observed values on a stand scale. Changes in simulated and observed carbon stocks of biomass and dead organic matter varied with stand age. The contribution of biomass to total forest carbon stocks increased, and that of dead organic matter decreased, with increasing stand age. • Conclusion We found that the carbon stocks in each pool and their contribution to the total forest carbon stocks varied with stand age. Our results are expected to contribute to the understanding of annual changes in the carbon stocks of Turkish forests. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France. Source


Guner S.T.,Research Institute for Forest Soil and Ecology | Ozkan K.,Suleyman Demirel University of Turkey | Comez A.,Research Institute for Forest Soil and Ecology
Polish Journal of Ecology | Year: 2011

Determining suitable sites for species is of great importance in the choice of plant species to be used for ecosystem restoration. The number of plant species to be used in restoration of degraded ecosystems is restricted by climate in arid and semi arid regions. Planting with economically important species in addition to ecological aspects is preferred by decision makers in Mediterrenian countries including Turkey. This study was addressed to determine the significant environmental factors influencing the distribution of dog rose hip (Rosa canina) and to obtain its distribution model. The study was carried out in an area of 26,400 km 2 in The Inner Anatolia which has semiarid climate. 106 sample plots, 20 ̇× 20 m in size, were selected from different sites with and without Rosa canina in the summer of 2007. Wilcoxon rank-sum statistic for continuous variables and Pearson Chi-square tests for categorical variables were applied. Altitude, slope degree, available water capacity, soil reaction and soil K, Ca, Mg content as well and total calcium carbonate amount as the continuous variables and northwest- northeast group of aspect, metamorphic group of bedrock as the categorical variables were determined as the significant factors influencing the presence of dog rose. Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was performed for modeling the distribution of the species. To obtain the best model, all significant environmental factors were evaluated. The best model result was obtained (training Area Under Curve (AUC) = 0.902 and cross-validation AUC = 0.841) by means of altitude, slope degree, aspect, and bedrock. Interspecific correlation analysis (ICA) was applied to define indicator species accompanying the dog rose. Dog rose distribution was positively correlated with Cistus laurifolius, Pyrus elaeagnifolia, Lonicera caucasica subsp. orientalis, Quercus vulcanica and Amelanchier rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia. The results obtained from this study are crucial for estimation of the suitable areas for Dog rose in restoration studies of natural ecosystems in the Mediterranean region, including Anatolia in Turkey. Source

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