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Choi S.-W.,Mokpo National University | Kim S.-S.,Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology
Entomological Science | Year: 2012

Here we review the current situation of endangered butterflies in Korea and describe the causes of their decline. Because no details regarding the changes in butterfly populations across the country were available, we selected candidate butterfly species based on a score sheet sent to six specialists in Korea. Twenty species were finally selected and assessed. As a result, 3 critically endangered, 14 endangered and 3 vulnerable species were identified. We attempted to identify the possible causes of decline by addressing habitat loss (grassland or riparian grassland), forest succession, warmer temperature, over-collecting and loss of symbiont ants. We discuss the causal factors with the current situation of butterfly populations in Korea. © 2011 The Entomological Society of Japan. Source


Kwon T.-S.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kim S.-S.,Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology | Chun J.H.,Korea forest Research Institute | Byun B.-K.,Korea National Arboretum | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2010

In the Republic of Korea, most denuded forest lands have been restored since the 1960s. In addition, the annual mean temperature in the Republic of Korea has increased ≈1.0°C during the last century, which is higher than the global mean increase of 0.74°C. Such rapid environmental changes may have resulted in changes in the local butterfly fauna. For example, the number of butterflies inhabiting forests may have increased because of reforestation, whereas the number of butterflies inhabiting grasslands may have declined. Furthermore, the number of northern butterflies may have declined, whereas the number of southern butterflies may have increased in response to global warming. Therefore, we compared current data (2002≈2007) regarding the abundance of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula to data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. Changes in the abundance rank of each species between the two periods were evaluated to determine whether any patterns corresponded to the predicted temporal changes. The predicted changes in butterfly abundance were confirmed in this study. In addition, the results showed a different response to habitat change between northern and southern species. In northern butterfly species, butterflies inhabiting forests increased, whereas those inhabiting grasslands declined. However, the opposite was true when southern butterfly species were evaluated. Changes in the abundance indicate that habitat change may be one of the key factors related to the survival of populations that remain around the southern boundary of butterfly species. © 2010 Entomological Society of America. Source


Kwon T.-S.,Korea forest Research Institute | Lee C.M.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kim S.-S.,Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Northward shifts due to global warming are apparent in various organisms in the Northern Hemisphere such as insects, fish, birds, and plants. However, these findings were mainly reported in Europe and North America. Therefore, such range shifts should be examined in other regions such as Asia to confirm global northward shifts in the Northern Hemisphere. In South Korea, we tested whether the distribution margins of Korean butterflies shifted northward or southward. We used occurrence data from two Korean butterfly atlases (1938-1950 and 1996-2011). The margin (northern or southern) shifts were evaluated using both latitudinal shifts of margin records (direct evaluation) and the intercept shift in the regression equation between the margin shift and the change in occurrence (intercept evaluation). Northern margins of southern species shifted northwards, whereas southern margins of northern species shifted southwards due to habitat enlargement (national reforestation in South Korea). The annual northward shift of northern margins of 10 Korean southern species was 1.6 km for 60 years, which is similar to the Korean isothermal shift (1.5 km per year). © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Kwon T.-S.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kim S.-S.,Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology | Lee C.M.,Korea forest Research Institute
Zoological Studies | Year: 2013

Background: It is expected that the successful nationwide reforestation and global warming will greatly change the butterfly fauna in South Korea. We compared current data (2002 to 2007) regarding the abundance and presence of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula with similar data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. The expected changes were documented by an abundance change of butterflies at the two study sites in a previous study. Using the same data, the most greatly changed species and the change of species presence were analyzed. Results: Population changes of 99 butterfly species which occurred at both sites were significantly correlated between the two sites. The greatly increased species included three southern (S) species and one northern (N) species. However, the species showing great decline included five N species and no S species. Conclusions: This change is consistent with the expectation of northward movement of butterfly species due to global warming. The current status of the greatly changed species is discussed along with other studies. The binary data (presence/absence) in the present study support the expected changes of butterfly species based on global warming and reforestation. The interactive effect of two environmental changes was also recognized, as well as the change of abundance in the previous study. © 2013 Kwon et al.; licensee Springer. Source


Kwon T.-S.,Korea forest Research Institute | Kim S.-S.,Research Institute for East Asian Environment and Biology | Choi S.-W.,Mokpo National University
Entomological Research | Year: 2013

The butterfly fauna on the Korean peninsula are comprised of both the Palearctic and Oriental species. We hypothesized that the Oriental species (immigrated across the sea) tend to have a wider niche breadth compared with the Palearctic species (immigrated from the continent) since the former migrates long distances across the sea and has to adapt to new environments. We tested this hypothesis using Korean butterfly data on distribution, habitat, food and life history traits. The distribution and ecological traits such as habitat breadth, overwintering stage, and voltinism of the Oriental species were found to be significantly different from the Palearctic species. However, the diet breadth and food plant type were not different. These results partly confirm the peninsula niche breadth hypothesis, which predicted that Oriental species have a broader niche breadth than Palearctic species. © 2013 The Authors. Entomological Research © 2013 The Entomological Society of Korea and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

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