Research Institute for Development

Paris, France

Research Institute for Development

Paris, France
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Hoang P.N.,Vietnam National University, Hanoi | Daniel Zucker J.,Research Institute for Development | Daniel Zucker J.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | Daniel Zucker J.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 3 more authors.
2016 IEEE RIVF International Conference on Computing and Communication Technologies: Research, Innovation, and Vision for the Future, RIVF 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Dengue is a mosquito-bome tropical disease caused by one of the four serotypes of dengue virus. There are about 2,5 billion people living in endemic areas. The potential influence of environmental and climatic factors on the transmission of mosquito-bome diseases are expected in many situations but the exact real influences of climatic variables remain uncertain in most of the cases. In the present study, we applied the Granger causality to analyze the relation between climatic variables and the monthly incidences of dengue syndromes in Vietnam for 64 provinces from 1994 to 2010. The experimental results shows a close relationship between climatic factors and dengue incidence in each province and their neighbourhoods. © 2016 IEEE.


Ravit M.,University of Montréal | Philibert A.,University of Ottawa | Philibert A.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Tourigny C.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2015

The fee exemption policy for EmONC in Mali aims to lower the financial barrier to care. The objective of the study was to evaluate the direct and indirect expenses associated with caesarean interventions performed in EmONC and the factors associated with these expenses. Data sampling followed the case control approach used in the large project (deceased and near-miss women). Our sample consisted of a total of 190 women who underwent caesarean interventions. Data were collected from the health workers and with a social approach by administering questionnaires to the persons who accompanied the woman. Household socioeconomic status was assessed using a wealth index constructed with a principal component analysis. The factors significantly associated with expenses were determined using multivariate linear regression analyses. Women in the Kayes region spent on average 77,017 FCFA (163 USD) for a caesarean episode in EmONC, of which 70 % was for treatment. Despite the caesarean fee exemption, 91 % of the women still paid for their treatment. The largest treatment-related direct expenses were for prescriptions, transfusion, antibiotics, and antihypertensive medication. Near-misses, women who presented a hemorrhage or an infection, and/or women living in rural areas spent significantly more than the others. Although abolishing fees of EmONC in Mali plays an important role in reducing maternal death by increasing access to caesarean sections, this paper shows that the fee policy did not benefit to all women. There are still barriers to EmONC access for women of the lowest socio-economic group. These included direct expenses for drugs prescription, treatment and indirect expenses for transport and food. © 2015, The Author(s).


Briand V.,Research Institute for Development | Briand V.,University of Paris Descartes | Abrahamowicz M.,McGill University | Sow A.,Cabinet dEtudes et de Recherche HYGEA | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objective: In the context of rapid changes regarding practices related to delivery in Africa, we assessed maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes associated with the mode of delivery in 41 referral hospitals of Mali and Senegal. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey nested in a randomised cluster trial (1/10/2007-1/10/2008). The associations between intended mode of delivery and (i) in-hospital maternal mortality, (ii) maternal morbidity (transfusion or hysterectomy), (iii) stillbirth or neonatal death before Day 1 and (iv) neonatal death between 24 hours after birth and hospital discharge were examined. We excluded women with immediate life threatening maternal or fetal complication to avoid indication bias. The analyses were performed using hierarchical logistic mixed models with random intercept and were adjusted for women's, newborn's and hospitals' characteristics. Results: Among the 78,166 included women, 2.2% had a pre-labor cesarean section (CS) and 97.8% had a trial of labor. Among women with a trial of labor, 87.5% delivered vaginally and 12.5% had intrapartum CS. Pre-labor CS was associated with a marked reduction in the risk of stillbirth or neonatal death before Day 1 as compared with trial of labor (OR = 0.2 [0.16-0.36]), though we did not show that maternal mortality (OR = 0.3 [0.07-1.32]) and neonatal mortality after Day 1 (OR = 1.3 (0.66-2.72]) differed significantly between groups. Among women with trial of labor, intrapartum CS and operative vaginal delivery were associated with higher risks of maternal mortality and morbidity, and neonatal mortality after Day 1, as compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery. Conclusions: In referral hospitals of Mali and Senegal, pre-labor CS is a safe procedure although intrapartum CS and operative vaginal delivery are associated with increased risks in mothers and infants. Further research is needed to determine what aspects of obstetric care contribute to a delay in the provision of intrapartum interventions so that practices may be made safer when they are needed. © 2012 Briand et al.


Yemadje P.L.,International Cooperation Center in Agronomic Research for Development | Yemadje P.L.,Research Institute for Development | Yemadje P.L.,Montpellier University | Guibert H.,International Cooperation Center in Agronomic Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2015

Soil respiration is a major component of the global carbon cycle which links ecosystems and the atmosphere. To evaluate the reaction of soil respiration after wetting, during a dry period, soil respiration and associated environmental factors were measured over a 24-h period, during the dry season in North Cameroon after wetting the soil. Over 24-h, soil respiration rates followed a quadratic curve during the day coming close to linear at night, while soil temperature and moisture together explained at least 73 % of the variations during the 24-h observed. These soil respiration rates increased during the morning, peaked between 11h00 and 13h00 and then decreased gradually to the minimum around 06h00. These observations were used to propose a method for estimating mean daytime and nighttime soil respiration after wetting the soil. The method proposed in this study has the advantage of being based on a small number of measurements and is, therefore, easier to implement for monitoring 24-h soil respiration after the first rains following a long dry period. © 2015, Scientia Agricola. All rights reserved.


Yavo W.,University of Cocody | Yavo W.,National Institute of Public Health of Cote dIvoire | Bla K.B.,University of Cocody | Djaman A.J.,University of Cocody | And 5 more authors.
African Health Sciences | Year: 2010

Background: Malaria is the primary cause of hospitalization in Côte d'Ivoire. Early treatment is one of the strategies to control this illness. However, the spread of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs can seriously compromise this strategy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum to monodesethylamodiaquine and aminoalcohols in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Methods: We assessed the in vitro susceptibility of isolates collected from patients with uncomplicated malaria by using the WHO optical microtest technique. Results: The proportions of resistance to monodesethylamodiaquine, méfloquine and halofantrine were 12.5%, 15.6% and 25.9%, respectively. For quinine, none of isolates showed evidence of in vitro resistance. However, two isolates (6.1%) had IC50 values above 300 nM. The IC50 of each drug was positively and significantly correlated to that of the other three drugs, and the correlation was higher between halofantrine and mefloquine. Conclusions: Our results showed that the in vitro chloroquine resistance reported in previous studies has been extended to other antimalarial drugs investigated in this study except for quinine. Therefore, it is necessary to implement a long-term monitoring system of antimalarial drug resistance.


Lafeuillade A.,General Hospital | Wainberg M.,McGill University | Gougeon M.-L.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Loes S.K.D.,Royal Free Hospital | And 2 more authors.
AIDS Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

The 2014 International Symposium on HIV and Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID) provided a forum for investigators to hear the latest research developments in the clinical management of HIV and HCV infections as well as HIV cure research. Combined anti-retroviral therapy (c-ART) has had a profound impact on the disease prognosis and transformed this infection into a chronic disease. However, HIV is able to persist within the infected host and the pandemic is still growing. The main 2014 ISHEID theme was, hence " Together for a world without HIV and AIDS". In this report we not only give details on this main topic but also summarize what has been discussed in the areas of HCV coinfection and present a short summary on currently emerging viral diseases. © 2014 Lafeuillade et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | McGill University, Research Institute for Development, European Hospital and Alphabio Laboratory, General Hospital and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: AIDS research and therapy | Year: 2014

The 2014 International Symposium on HIV and Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID) provided a forum for investigators to hear the latest research developments in the clinical management of HIV and HCV infections as well as HIV cure research. Combined anti-retroviral therapy (c-ART) has had a profound impact on the disease prognosis and transformed this infection into a chronic disease. However, HIV is able to persist within the infected host and the pandemic is still growing. The main 2014 ISHEID theme was, hence Together for a world without HIV and AIDS. In this report we not only give details on this main topic but also summarize what has been discussed in the areas of HCV coinfection and present a short summary on currently emerging viral diseases.


Sokolovska N.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | Sokolovska N.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Sokolovska N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clement K.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2016

Dimensionality reduction is used to preserve significant properties of data in a low-dimensional space. In particular, data representation in a lower dimension is needed in applications, where information comes from multiple high dimensional sources. Data integration, however, is a challenge in itself.In this contribution, we consider a general framework to perform dimensionality reduction taking into account that data are heterogeneous. We propose a novel approach, called Deep Kernel Dimensionality Reduction which is designed for learning layers of new compact data representations simultaneously. The method can be also used to learn shared representations between modalities. We show by experiments on standard and on real large-scale biomedical data sets that the proposed method embeds data in a new compact meaningful representation, and leads to a lower classification error compared to the state-of-the-art methods. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Jafar-Sidik M.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah | Aung T.,Universiti Malaysia Sabah | Singh A.,Research Institute for Development
American Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Problem statement: A widely held belief that climate change has impacts on sustainable fish catch leads us to find out how these effects influence fish landings in Sabah, Malaysia, especially for the west and east coasts, based upon monsoonal periods. Correlation of fish landings with rainfall suggests that local fish landing is believed to be sensitive to the effects of climate change. Approach: Rainfall, temperature, wind, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and fish landings time series for 3 specific regions (Kota Kinabalu (KK), Tawau and Sandakan) have been studied using available local data for the last 9 years. Results: Results indicated significant fish landing variations due to the fluctuation of these meteorological parameters, for example, ~20% reduction is found during Northeast (NE) monsoon at KK. Heavy rainfall correlates well with high fish landings when fish landings lead rainfall by 1 month. Fish landings and temperature were also highly correlated. Fish landings leads wind stress by 1-2 months with 99% certainty and it is high when the wind direction is between 150-200° from north (approximately for South Easterlies and South Westerlies). Conclusion: The results confirmed that fish landing is low during NE monsoon period. In regard to the effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), low or negative SOI indicates high fish landings.© 2010 Science Publications.


PubMed | Research Institute for Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

In the context of rapid changes regarding practices related to delivery in Africa, we assessed maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes associated with the mode of delivery in 41 referral hospitals of Mali and Senegal.Cross-sectional survey nested in a randomised cluster trial (1/10/2007-1/10/2008). The associations between intended mode of delivery and (i) in-hospital maternal mortality, (ii) maternal morbidity (transfusion or hysterectomy), (iii) stillbirth or neonatal death before Day 1 and (iv) neonatal death between 24 hours after birth and hospital discharge were examined. We excluded women with immediate life threatening maternal or fetal complication to avoid indication bias. The analyses were performed using hierarchical logistic mixed models with random intercept and were adjusted for womens, newborns and hospitals characteristics.Among the 78,166 included women, 2.2% had a pre-labor cesarean section (CS) and 97.8% had a trial of labor. Among women with a trial of labor, 87.5% delivered vaginally and 12.5% had intrapartum CS. Pre-labor CS was associated with a marked reduction in the risk of stillbirth or neonatal death before Day 1 as compared with trial of labor (OR = 0.2 [0.16-0.36]), though we did not show that maternal mortality (OR = 0.3 [0.07-1.32]) and neonatal mortality after Day 1 (OR = 1.3 (0.66-2.72]) differed significantly between groups. Among women with trial of labor, intrapartum CS and operative vaginal delivery were associated with higher risks of maternal mortality and morbidity, and neonatal mortality after Day 1, as compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery.In referral hospitals of Mali and Senegal, pre-labor CS is a safe procedure although intrapartum CS and operative vaginal delivery are associated with increased risks in mothers and infants. Further research is needed to determine what aspects of obstetric care contribute to a delay in the provision of intrapartum interventions so that practices may be made safer when they are needed.

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