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McGrath J.J.,Queensland Center for Mental Health Research | McGrath J.J.,University of Queensland | Saha S.,Queensland Center for Mental Health Research | Saha S.,University of Queensland | And 22 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2016

Background: Given the early age of onset (AOO) of psychotic disorders, it has been assumed that psychotic experiences (PEs) would have a similar early AOO. The aims of this study were to describe (a) the AOO distribution of PEs, (b) the projected lifetime risk of PEs, and (c) the associations of PE AOO with selected PE features. Methods: Data came from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. A total of 31 261 adult respondents across 18 countries were assessed for lifetime prevalence of PE. Projected lifetime risk (at age 75 years) was estimated using a 2-part actuarial method. AOO distributions were described for the observed and projected estimates. We examined associations of AOO with PE type metric and annualized PE frequency. Results: Projected lifetime risk for PEs was 7.8% (SE = 0.3), slightly higher than lifetime prevalence (5.8%, SE = 0.2). The median (interquartile range; IQR) AOO based on projected lifetime estimates was 26 (17-41) years, indicating that PEs commence across a wide age range. The AOO distributions for PEs did not differ by sex. Early AOO was positively associated with number of PE types (F = 14.1, P < .001) but negatively associated with annualized PE frequency rates (F = 8.0, P < .001). Discussion: While most people with lifetime PEs have first onsets in adolescence or young adulthood, projected estimates indicate that nearly a quarter of first onsets occur after age 40 years. The extent to which late onset PEs are associated with (a) late onset mental disorders or (b) declining cognitive and/or sensory function need further research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.

Salem B.A.,St. Georges University | Salem B.A.,University of Balamand | Salem B.A.,Medical Institute for Neuropsychological Disorders MIND | Salem B.A.,Institute for Development Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Aims The first aim of this study is to investigate the impact of different temperaments in opiate dependency patients. The second aim of this study is to define therapy relevant subgroups in opiate addiction for further basic clinical research and therapy. Methods In the time period from September to November 2010, 101 patients (72 males and 29 females) which fulfilled the diagnosis of opiate dependency according to DSM-IV-TR were recruited consecutively. All patients were in treatment at the Oum El Nour rehabilitation center/Lebanon (Inpatient and Outpatient groups). Lesch Alcoholism Typology modified for assessment of opiate addicts, and the briefTEMPS-M, Arabic version were used. Results The organic Type IV group was the most prevalent (48.5%) among the sample followed by the Affective Type III group (41.6%) and the minority represented the two other types (I & II). The organic Type IV group represented the major type in the cyclothymic and anxious temperament. In the contrary the other two groups (I & II) were the minority among the cyclothymics. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Gantt S.,University of British Columbia | Gantt S.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Leister E.,Center for Biostatistics in Research | Jacobsen D.L.,Center for Biostatistics in Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2016

Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is common among infants born to HIV-infected women. Nelfinavir (NFV), an antiretroviral drug that is safe during pregnancy, inhibits CMV replication in vitro at concentrations that standard doses achieve in plasma. We hypothesized that infants born to women receiving NFV for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) would have a reduced prevalence of cCMV infection. Methods: The prevalence of cCMV infection was compared among HIV-uninfected infants whose HIV-infected mothers either received NFV for >4 weeks during pregnancy (NFV-exposed) or did not receive any NFV in pregnancy (NFV-unexposed). CMV PCR was performed on infant blood samples collected at <3 weeks from birth. Results: Of the 1,255 women included, 314 received NFV for >4 weeks during pregnancy and 941 did not receive any NFV during pregnancy. The overall prevalence of cCMV infection in the infants was 2.2%, which did not differ by maternal NFV use. Maternal CD4 T cell counts were inversely correlated with risk of cCMV infection, independent of the time NFV was initiated during gestation. Infants with cCMV infection were born 0.7 weeks earlier (P=0.010) and weighed 170g less (P=0.009) than uninfected infants. Conclusion: Among HIV-exposed uninfected infants, cCMV infection was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. NFV use in pregnancy was not associated with protection against cCMV. Safe and effective strategies to prevent cCMV infection are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Alonso J.,IMIM Institute Hospital del Mar dInvestigacions Mediques | Alonso J.,University Pompeu Fabra | Alonso J.,CIBER ISCIII | Vilagut G.,IMIM Institute Hospital del Mar dInvestigacions Mediques | And 27 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health.Methods and Findings:WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS) score (0, worst to 100, best) measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities), family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions) effects.Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1). Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8), depression (8.2) and bipolar disorder (8.1). Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5%) of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions). Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions.Conclusions:More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of mediation is different. Research is needed on the benefits for perceived health of targeted interventions aimed at particular disability dimensions. © 2013 Alonso et al.

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