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Hinte S.,Bielefeld University | Lohse M.,Research Institute for Cognition and Robotics CoR Laboratory
Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication | Year: 2011

When and how do users interrupt the interaction with a robot and turn to the experimenter? Usually it is assumed that experimenters affect the interaction negatively and should ideally not be present at all. However, in interaction situations with autonomous systems and inexperienced users this is often not possible for safety reasons. Thus, the participants indeed at times switch their focus of attention from the robot to the experimenter. Instead of seeing this as something purely negative, we argue that answering the questions of when, why and how this happens actually bears important information about the state of the interaction and the users' understanding of it. Therefore, we analyzed a study conducted in a home tour scenario with this respect and indeed discovered certain situations when the users turned away from the robot and towards the experimenter. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Hughes C.M.L.,TU Munich | Seegelke C.,Bielefeld University | Seegelke C.,CITEC | Seegelke C.,Research Institute for Cognition and Robotics CoR Laboratory
Journal of Motor Behavior | Year: 2013

The authors examined the effects of perturbations in action goal on bimanual grasp posture planning. Sixteen participants simultaneously reached for 2 cylinders and placed either the left or the right end of the cylinders into targets. As soon as the participants began their reaching movements, a secondary stimulus was triggered, which indicated whether the intended action goal for the left or right hand had changed. Overall, the tendency for a single hand to select end-state comfort compliant grasp postures was higher for the nonperturbed condition compared to both the perturbed left and perturbed right conditions. Furthermore, participants were more likely to plan their movements to ensure end-state comfort for both hands during nonperturbed trials, than perturbed trials, especially object end-orientation conditions that required the adoption of at least one underhand grasp posture to satisfy bimanual end-state comfort. Results indicated that when the action goal of a single object was perturbed, participants attempted to reduce the cognitive costs associated with grasp posture replanning by maintaining the original grasp posture plan, and tolerating grasp postures that result in less controllable final postures. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Hughes C.M.L.,Nanyang Technological University | Seegelke C.,Bielefeld University | Seegelke C.,Research Institute for Cognition and Robotics CoR Laboratory | Seegelke C.,CITEC | Reissig P.,University of Tasmania
Brain and Cognition | Year: 2014

The purpose of the current experiments was to examine whether the problems associated with grasp posture planning during bimanually incongruent movements are due to crosstalk at the motor programming level. Participants performed a grasping and placing task in which they grasped two objects from a table and placed them onto a board to targets that required identical (congruent) or non-identical degrees of rotation (incongruent). The interval between the presentation of the first stimulus and the second stimulus (stimulus onset asynchrony: SOA) was manipulated. Results demonstrate that the problems associated with bimanually incongruent grasp posture planning are reduced at SOA durations longer than 1000. ms, indicating that the costs associated with bimanual incongruent movements arise from crosstalk at the motor programming level. In addition, reach-to-grasp times were shorter, and interlimb limb coupling was higher, for congruent, compared to incongruent, object end-orientation conditions in both Experiment 1 and 2. The bimanual interference observed during reach-to-grasp execution is postulated to arise from limitations in the visual motor system or from conceptual language representations. The present results emphasize that bimanual interference arises from constraints active at multiple levels of the neurobiological-cognitive system. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lohse M.,Research Institute for Cognition and Robotics CoR Laboratory
Proceedings - IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication | Year: 2011

What users expect of a robot strongly influences their ratings of the interaction. If the robot satisfies the expectations, the users are usually pleased. If not, their experience of the interaction is negative. We as robot designers strive to design for positive interaction experiences. Therefore, users' expectations need to be taken into account. However, in this paper we argue that not all expectations are equally important. Based on a semantic differential questionnaire, we show a correlation between the perceived importance of users' expectations and the difficulty to satisfy them in interaction. The paper argues that this correlation allows to identify the most important improvements that should be made to robot systems but also to find attributes which the robot is quite good at already. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Westerholz J.,CITEC | Westerholz J.,Bielefeld University | Schack T.,CITEC | Schack T.,Bielefeld University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Recent research has shown that neurophysiological activation during action planning depends on the orientation to initial or final action goals for precision grips. However, the neural signature for a distinct class of grasping, power grips, is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between cerebral activity, by means of event-related potentials (ERPs), and its temporal organization during power grips executed with an emphasis on either the initial or final parts of movement sequences. In a grasp and transportation task, visual cues emphasized either the grip (the immediate goal) or the target location (the final goal). ERPs differed between immediate and final goal-cued conditions, suggesting different means of operation dependent on goal-relatedness. Differences in mean amplitude occurred earlier for power grips than for recently reported precision grips time-locked to grasping over parieto-occipital areas. Time-locked to final object placement, differences occurred within a similar time window for power and precision grips over frontal areas. These results suggest that a parieto-frontal network of activation is of crucial importance for grasp planning and execution. Our results indicate that power grip preparation and execution for goal-related actions are controlled by similar neural mechanisms as have been observed during precision grips, but with a distinct temporal pattern. © 2013 Westerholz et al. Source

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