Osamura K.,Research Institute for Applied science |
Nyilas A.,Cryogemic Engineering and Materials Expertise |
Shin H.,Korea University
Cryogenics | Year: 2010
The international round robin test (RRT) was conducted in order to establish the international standard for the tensile test method for BSCCO-2223 tape shaped wires. The measurands of mechanical properties were statistically analyzed to estimate their standard uncertainties and their correlation among laboratories. Consequently the large variance was observed with the modulus of elasticity determined from the initial loading curve. The reason has been examined by estimating type B uncertainties causing at every step of the experimental procedure. With respect to the modulus of elasticity, the grand intra-lab average of relative standard uncertainty (RSU) obtained from the RRT coincided roughly with that derived by means of type B evaluation. Thus it is emphasized that the type B evaluation is very effective tool for expecting the uncertainties of the observations like the modulus of elasticity. On the other hand, the grand over-all RSU was larger than the grand intra-lab one. The combined standard uncertainties were calculated by changing the strain rate, but kept other parameters constant. In order to suppress the influence from the strain rate to the variance, it has been recommended that the strain rate shall be regulated less than 2 × 10-4 1/s in the tensile test method. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kamei T.,Research Institute for Applied science
Sustainability | Year: 2012
The most important target of the concept "sustainability" is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The history of nuclear power has been the control of the nuclear fission reaction. Once this is obtained, then the economy of the system is required. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the internalization of the external diseconomy to avoid damage to human society caused by the economic activity itself, due to its limited capacity. An extreme example is waste. Thus, reducing radioactive waste resulting from nuclear power is essential. Nuclear non-proliferation must be guaranteed. Moreover, the FUKUSHIMA accident revealed that it is still not enough that human beings control nuclear reaction. Further, the most essential issue for sustaining use of one technology is human resources in manufacturing, operation, policy-making and education. Nuclear power will be able to satisfy the requirements of sustainability only when these subjects are addressed. The author will review recent activities of a thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR) as a cornerstone for a sustainable society and describe its objectives and forecasts. © 2012 by the authors.
Ochiai S.,Kyoto University |
Okuda H.,Kyoto University |
Fujii N.,Kyoto University |
Osamura K.,Research Institute for Applied science
Materials Transactions | Year: 2015
When high-temperature superconducting layer-coated conductors are exposed to high electromagnetic and/or mechanical stress and strain, the superconducting layer is damaged mainly by cracking. As cracking occurs heterogeneously, the critical current and n-value of a test specimen, which is composed of a series circuit of local sections, are dependent on the extent of cracking in local sections. In this work, the correlations of the extent of cracking in local sections with the critical current and n-value of the specimen were studied by modeling analysis. When one section is cracked, the critical current and n-value of the specimen decrease with increasing crack size. When multiple sections are cracked, the properties depend on the difference in crack size among the sections. When the crack size of the sections is similar, the critical current of the specimen decreases and the n-value increases as the number of cracked sections increases. This is caused by the increased voltage and the decreased shunting current at cracks. When there are large differences in the crack sizes of the sections, the section with the largest crack controls the voltage-current behavior of the specimen and determines the reduction in the critical current and n-value. For a given size of the largest crack, the critical current of the specimen is slightly higher and the n-value is lower when there is an intermediate difference in crack size among the sections than when there is a small difference in crack size, and the critical current is lower and the n-value is higher when there is an intermediate difference in crack size than when there is a large difference in crack size. © 2015 The Japan Institute of Metals and Materials.
Kubo A.,Research Institute for Applied science
Mechanisms and Machine Science | Year: 2016
It is obvious that the basics of gear technology is the theory of geometry for conjugate action of mating gears for transmission of motion through contacting tooth flanks. Teeth of actual gears though contact not only on tooth flank to tooth flank, but also at edges of tooth tip and of tooth sides. Such edge contact is usually out of the conjugate meshing theory of gearing. Many causes of failure of highly loaded gear teeth are initiated due to the contact at such tooth edges. Contact of tooth edge produces considerable amount of wear debris. Meshing teeth crush intruded wear debris and damage themselves. With run of gear operation, gear failure develops as a phenomenon of such a positive feedback system. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
Osamura K.,Research Institute for Applied science |
Machiya S.,Daido University |
Hampshire D.P.,Durham University
Superconductor Science and Technology | Year: 2016
In order to elucidate the effect of uniaxial strain on the critical current of practical REBCO tapes (REBa2Cu3O7-d, RE = Y and Gd) fabricated by Superpower and Sunam, two types of critical current measurements were carried out. In the first, the tape sample was attached directly to a universal testing machine and pulled under a tensile load. In the second, the tape was soldered to a Cu-Be springboard and then attached to the testing machine and then pushed or pulled in order to apply both tensile and compressive strains to the tape sample. An inverse parabolic behaviour was observed for the uniaxial strain dependence of the critical current of both tapes. Using synchrotron radiation, the local strain exerted on the REBCO layer was measured at room temperature under the conditions used for the two techniques for making I c measurements. On the basis of these room temperature data, the local strain exerted on the REBCO layer at 77 K was numerically evaluated. A one-dimensional chain model for current flow in the REBCO material with fractional lengths of A-domains and B-domains oriented along the uniaxial strain direction is proposed. The model can explain the parabolic strain behaviour of the critical current and shows that the strain at which the peak in I c occurs, is not only determined by pre-compression or pre-tension on the superconductor at the operating temperature, but also by the ratio of the fractional amounts of the two domains. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.