Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology

Kawasaki, Japan

Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology

Kawasaki, Japan

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Sasaki Y.,Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food | Maruyama N.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Zou B.,Institute for Food and Environment science in Tokyo Kenbikyo in Foundation | Haruna M.,Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food | And 5 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2013

Consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products contaminated with Campylobacter has been identified as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. We determined whether slaughtering of Campylobacter-positive flocks was associated with contamination of chicken products derived from Campylobacter-negative flocks slaughtered at the same abattoir. The presence of Campylobacter was investigated in 22 broiler farms 1week prior to slaughter and in one abattoir on nine separate slaughter days. A total of 600 bulk packed chicken products were tested, with 198 (33.0%) of the products found to be Campylobacter positive. Of the 350 chicken products originating from Campylobacter-positive flocks, 180 (51.1%) were contaminated with the bacteria. In contrast, only 18 (7.2%) of 250 chicken products derived from Campylobacter-negative flocks were contaminated. In 14 of these 18 products, the Campylobacter isolates were identical to isolates obtained from the flock slaughtered immediately prior to the Campylobacter-negative flock. Notably, on 4/6 slaughter days, Campylobacter-negative flocks were slaughtered prior to the positive flocks, and Campylobacter was absent from all chicken products originating from the negative flocks. These results suggest that implementation of logistic slaughter (where Campylobacter-negative flocks are slaughter first) significantly decreases the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive chicken products. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Hasegawa M.,Tenshi College | Iwabuchi E.,Tenshi College | Yamamoto S.,Tenshi College | Esaki H.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan. We collected bovine colostrum samples from 210 dams from 21 dairy farms in Hokkaido prefecture (Japan) between March and June 2009. L. monocytogenes was detected in samples from 6 (28.6%) of the 21 farms. Of the 210 samples, 16 (7.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. We recovered 80 L. monocytogenes isolates; 44 (55%) isolates were classified as serotype 1/2b and 36 (45%) were classified as serotype 4b. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the 80 isolates revealed six PFGE types. Two PFGE types corresponded to human listeriosis cases. Most L. monocytogenes isolates possessed virulence-associated genes (actA, hly, iap, inlA, inlC, mpl, plcA, plcB, opuCA, prfA, and clpC). One PFGE type isolate possessed an epidemic clone II marker. Our findings suggest that isolates from bovine colostrum have the potential to cause human and animal listeriosis. This is the first study on the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from bovine colostrum obtained from dairy farms. Our results have important implications for improving public health and elucidating the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in bovine colostrum. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.


PubMed | Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization and Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

European foulbrood (EFB) caused by Melissococcus plutonius is an important bacterial disease of honeybee larvae. M. plutonius strains can be grouped into three genetically distinct groups (CC3, CC12 and CC13). Because EFB could not be reproduced in artificially reared honeybee larvae by fastidious strains of CC3 and CC13 previously, we investigated a method to improve experimental conditions using a CC3 strain and found that infection with a potassium-rich diet enhanced proliferation of the fastidious strain in larvae at the early stage of infection, leading to the appearance of clear clinical symptoms. Further comparison of M. plutonius virulence under the conditions revealed that the representative strain of CC12 was extremely virulent and killed all tested bees before pupation, whereas the CC3 strain was less virulent than the CC12 strain, and a part of the infected larvae pupated. In contrast, the tested CC13 strain was avirulent, and as with the non-infected control group, most of the infected brood became adult bees, suggesting differences in the insect-level virulence among M. plutonius strains with different genetic backgrounds. These strains and the improved experimental infection method to evaluate their virulence will be useful tools for further elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms of EFB.


Iwabuchi E.,Tenshi College | Maruyama N.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Hara A.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Nishimura M.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

A nationwide survey was conducted to determine Salmonella prevalence in airborne dust from layer farms. Of the 4,090 layer farms in Japan, 203 were surveyed and 48 (23.6%) of hese were positive for Salmonella. Salmonella isolation rates were higher in the eastern (24.3%), central (25.6%), western (23.9%), and southern (27.5%) prefectures than they were in the northern (13.3%) prefecture. We recovered 380 Salmonella isolates and identified 34 different Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Infantis was the most prevalent serovar (42 [11.1%] of 380), followed by Salmonella Agona (39 [10.3%] of 380), Salmonella Mbandaka (37 [9.7%] of 380), Salmonella Cerro (32 [8.4%] of 380), Salmonella Thompson (29 [7.6%] of 380), and Salmonella Braenderup (27 [7.1%] of 380). Of the 380 isolates, 273 (71.8%) were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Salmonella Infantis (41 [97.6%] of 42), Salmonella Agona (38 [97.4%] of 39), and Salmonella Mbandaka (34 [91.9%] of 37) showed the highest resistance rates. We found 18 different resistance patterns and the most common (179 [47.1%] of 273) was resistant to dihydrostreptomycin. One of the 13 Salmonella Hadar isolates was resistant to eight antibiotics. To investigate characteristics of Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Mbandaka isolates across different prefectures, we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis by using XbaI and BlnI. The Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Mbandaka dendrograms were grouped into seven clusters, with 80 and 70% similarity, respectively. Because the Salmonella Infantis dendrogram showed low similarity, there is a possibility of genetic diffusion of this serovar across Japan. This report is the first to describe Salmonella contamination in airborne dust from layer farms in Japan. Our findings should be useful for future Salmonella infection monitoring and control. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.


Ohnishi M.,The Mutual | Okatani A.T.,Azabu University | Harada K.,Tottori University | Sawada T.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Sixty-five CTX-M-2/15/14 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 258,888 mastitic milk samples from Japanese dairy farms between 2007 and 2011. CTX-M-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and CTX-M-15- producing Escherichia coli were the predominant strains isolated. There was no predominant clonal type, and clonal diversity was found even in strains isolated from a single farm. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Sasaki Y.,Chiyoda Corporation | Murakami M.,Chiyoda Corporation | Maruyama N.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Tsujiyama Y.,Chiyoda Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20·7% of the farms and 19·5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Hasegawa M.,Tenshi College | Iwabuchi E.,Tenshi College | Yamamoto S.,Hokkaido University | Muramatsu M.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | And 2 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (p<0.01). Moreover, serotyping of 996 isolates identified 1/2b as the most prevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Inoue M.,Azabu University | Yamamoto A.,Azabu University | Kaneko Y.,Azabu University | Noda A.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Naito H.,Azabu University
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2014

Noda epileptic rats (NERs) present with clinico-pathological manifestations reminiscent of human generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy. Thus, this strain of rat has been a model of primary, generalized, tonic-clonic epilepsy. However, the infrequency of seizures in these rats makes the assessment of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) difficult. Therefore, traditional AEDs have only been tested in NERs against audiogenic seizures evoked by weekly acoustic priming from 3 to 22 weeks of age or by using the kindling procedure in adult animals. Adult NERs are susceptible to changes in their environment, such as bedding replacement or unpleasant sensory stimuli. In the present study, traditional AEDs-phenobarbital (PB) and sodium valproate (VPA)-were evaluated against seizures evoked by strong environmental stimuli in mature NERs that had not been previously primed. The number of animals presenting with seizures decreased in a dose-dependent manner following administration of either PB (dose range 1.0-5.0. mg/kg) or VPA (50 and 100. mg/kg). Consequently, the utility of NERs as a model of generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy was confirmed. This type of protocol can be used to further evaluate AEDs and test effects of chronic administration of AEDs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Esaki H.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Shimura K.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Yamazaki Y.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Eguchi M.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Nakamura M.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

A total of 105 033 eggs were collected across Japan from June 2010 to January 2011 and tested for Salmonella Enteritidis to provide data for the risk profiling of S. Enteritidis in eggs by the Food Safety Commission of Japan. S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from three samples (20 eggs/sample) and these samples were different in regard to sampling period, grading and packaging centre and farm. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan is estimated at ∼0·003% which was a tenfold decrease in prevalence compared to similar surveillance in the mid 1990s. The decrease in the contamination in commercial eggs is considered a contributory factor in the decrease of foodborne diseases associated with S. Enteritidis in this period. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Shiraishi R.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Nishimura M.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Nakashima R.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Enta C.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Hirayama N.,Azabu University
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2014

In Japan, the import quarantine regulation against rabies has required from 2005 that dogs and cats should be inoculated with the rabies vaccine and that the neutralizing antibody titer should be confirmed to be at least 0.5 international units (IU)/ml. The fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is used as an international standard method for serological testing for rabies. To achieve proper immunization of dogs and cats at the time of import and export, changes in the neutralizing antibody titer after inoculation of the rabies vaccine should be understood in detail. However, few reports have provided this information. In this study, we aimed to determine evaluated, such changes by using sera from experimental dogs and cats inoculated with the rabies vaccine, and we tested samples using the routine FAVN test. In both dogs and cats, proper, regular vaccination enabled the necessary titer of neutralizing antibodies to be maintained in the long term. However, inappropriate timing of blood sampling after vaccination could result in insufficient detected levels of neutralizing antibodies. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.

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