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Hasegawa M.,Tenshi College | Iwabuchi E.,Tenshi College | Yamamoto S.,Hokkaido University | Muramatsu M.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | And 2 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (p<0.01). Moreover, serotyping of 996 isolates identified 1/2b as the most prevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Sasaki Y.,Chiyoda Corporation | Murakami M.,Chiyoda Corporation | Maruyama N.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Tsujiyama Y.,Chiyoda Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20·7% of the farms and 19·5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Inoue M.,Azabu University | Yamamoto A.,Azabu University | Kaneko Y.,Azabu University | Noda A.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Naito H.,Azabu University
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2014

Noda epileptic rats (NERs) present with clinico-pathological manifestations reminiscent of human generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy. Thus, this strain of rat has been a model of primary, generalized, tonic-clonic epilepsy. However, the infrequency of seizures in these rats makes the assessment of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) difficult. Therefore, traditional AEDs have only been tested in NERs against audiogenic seizures evoked by weekly acoustic priming from 3 to 22 weeks of age or by using the kindling procedure in adult animals. Adult NERs are susceptible to changes in their environment, such as bedding replacement or unpleasant sensory stimuli. In the present study, traditional AEDs-phenobarbital (PB) and sodium valproate (VPA)-were evaluated against seizures evoked by strong environmental stimuli in mature NERs that had not been previously primed. The number of animals presenting with seizures decreased in a dose-dependent manner following administration of either PB (dose range 1.0-5.0. mg/kg) or VPA (50 and 100. mg/kg). Consequently, the utility of NERs as a model of generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy was confirmed. This type of protocol can be used to further evaluate AEDs and test effects of chronic administration of AEDs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Sasaki Y.,Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food | Maruyama N.,Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology | Zou B.,Institute for Food and Environment science in Tokyo Kenbikyo in Foundation | Haruna M.,Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food | And 5 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2013

Consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products contaminated with Campylobacter has been identified as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. We determined whether slaughtering of Campylobacter-positive flocks was associated with contamination of chicken products derived from Campylobacter-negative flocks slaughtered at the same abattoir. The presence of Campylobacter was investigated in 22 broiler farms 1week prior to slaughter and in one abattoir on nine separate slaughter days. A total of 600 bulk packed chicken products were tested, with 198 (33.0%) of the products found to be Campylobacter positive. Of the 350 chicken products originating from Campylobacter-positive flocks, 180 (51.1%) were contaminated with the bacteria. In contrast, only 18 (7.2%) of 250 chicken products derived from Campylobacter-negative flocks were contaminated. In 14 of these 18 products, the Campylobacter isolates were identical to isolates obtained from the flock slaughtered immediately prior to the Campylobacter-negative flock. Notably, on 4/6 slaughter days, Campylobacter-negative flocks were slaughtered prior to the positive flocks, and Campylobacter was absent from all chicken products originating from the negative flocks. These results suggest that implementation of logistic slaughter (where Campylobacter-negative flocks are slaughter first) significantly decreases the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive chicken products. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Okamura M.,Kitasato University | Ueda M.,Kitasato University | Noda Y.,Kitasato University | Kuno Y.,Kitasato University | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Vaccination of poultry is one promising strategy to mitigate Salmonella infection in poultry and, in turn, humans as well. We evaluated the efficacy of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) as a novel vaccine candidate against Salmonella in poultry. Native OmpA purified from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was mixed with adjuvant and administered intramuscularly to 41-d-old chicks. The vaccinated birds showed no decrease in cecal excretion and tissue colonization compared with the unvaccinated birds after oral challenge with 109 cfu of the homologous strain at 28 d postimmunization. However, this vaccination induced an increased level of serum anti-OmpA IgG. Similar results were obtained in the replication experiments using a recombinant OmpA with single and double doses. For the development of more effective component vaccines for avian salmonellosis, the vaccine efficacy of outer membrane proteins other than OmpA and route of immunization other than parenteral administration should be evaluated with regard to protection and immune responses, including mucosal IgA. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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