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Krupova Z.,Institute of Animal Science | Krupa E.,Institute of Animal Science | Michalickova M.,Research Institute for Animal Production Nitra | Zavadilova L.,Institute of Animal Science | Kadlecik O.,Slovak University of Agriculture

Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio) of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year) and with negative profitability ratio (-20%). Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers) and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score) was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%), on the effective utilisation of costs (+105%) and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management. © 2015, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. All rights reserved. Source

Milerski M.,Institute of Animal Science | Margetin M.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Margetin M.,Research Institute for Animal Production Nitra | Makovicky P.,Laboratory of Veterinary Histopathology in Komarno
Archivos de Zootecnia

Udder cistern size in ewes was diagnosed by ultrasonography, using a 3.5MHz linear probe applied laterally from side or ventrally from bottom. The acquired ultrasound images were used to digitally determine the left and right cistern sizes. Both cisterns were scanned approximately 12 hours after the last milking. The area of the left (ALC1; 1933.35 mm2) and right udder cisterns (ARC1; 1970.72 mm2), were determined using from side scans of 378 ewes, obtained at different phases of the lactation cycle), for a total of 1198 measurements. The area of the left (ALC2; 2137.67 mm2) and right udder cisterns (ARC2; 2171.12 mm2) as determined using from bottom scans, from 265 ewes; for a total of 753 measurements. The sums of both cross-sectional areas detected by the method from side (SLRC1) was 3904.07 mm2, and by the method from bottom (SLRC2) was 4308.77 mm2. Primary data were processed using REML methodology and the multiple trait animal model, using the programs REMLF90 and VCE 4.0. In the models, animal was ascribed as a random additive genetic effect and ewe as a permanent effect. Control year (7 or 5 levels), lactation stage (4 levels), breed group (9 levels) and parity (3 levels) were all ascribed as fixed effects. We found higher values of heritability (h2) for the parameters determined by the method from bottom. Heritability coefficients for ALC1 and ALC2 were 0.07 and 0.18 respectively, for ARC1 and ARC2 were 0.17 and 0.2 respectively, and for SLRC1 and SLRC2 were 0.12 and 0.17 respectively. Genetic correlations between ARC1 and ARC1 or ARC2 and ARC2 were high (rg= 0.73 and 0.91). Similarly, the correlations between the size of left and/or right cistern and the total size of both cisterns were high using both ways of scanning (rg= 0.90 to 0.98). In conclusion, measuring the size of the udder cisterns from side is recommended, although measurements from bottom show slightly higher heritability coefficients. © 2015 Universidad de Cordoba. All rights reserved. Source

Oravcova M.,Research Institute for Animal Production Nitra
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

The objective of this study was to assess variance components and genetic parameters for fat and protein content in Tsigai sheep using multivariate animal models in which fat and protein content in individual months of lactation were treated as different traits, and univariate models in which fat and protein content were treated as repeated measures of the same traits. Test day measurements were taken between the second and the seventh month of lactation. The fixed effects were lactation number, litter size and days in milk. The random effects were animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of ewe. The effect of flock-year-month of test day measurement was fitted either as a fixed (FYM) or random (fym) effect. Heritabilities for fat content were estimated between 0.06 and 0.17 (FYM fitted) and between 0.06 and 0.11 (fym fitted). Heritabilities for protein content were estimated between 0.15 and 0.23 (FYM fitted) and between 0.10 and 0.18 (fym fitted). For fat content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.04 and 0.11 (FYM fitted) and between 0.02 and 0.06 (fym fitted). For protein content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.13 and 0.20 (FYM fitted) and between 0.08 and 0.12 (fym fitted). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by fym effect ranged from 0.39 to 0.43 for fat content and from 0.25 to 0.36 for protein content. Genetic correlations between individual months of lactation ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 (fat content) and from 0.64 to 0.99 (protein content). Fat content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models roughly corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.13 (FYM fitted) and 0.07 (fym fitted). Protein content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models also corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.18 (FYM fitted) and 0.13 (fym fitted). Copyright © 2016 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

Makovicky P.,J. Selye University | Margetin M.,Research Institute for Animal Production Nitra | Milerski M.,Institute of Animal Science

We studied the size of mammary cistern in ewes of 9 genotypes (purebred Improved Valachian (IV), purebred Tsigai (T), purebred Lacaune (LC) and their crosses with genetic proportion of specialized dairy breeds Lacaune and East Friesian (EF) - (25 %, 50 % and 75 %) were evaluated. Data were evaluated using REML methodology and MIXED procedure (SAS/STAT). The effect of genotype showed the highest influence (P<0.001) on the length and area of the left and right udder cisterns measurements. In purebred IV ewes, the average areas of the left and right udder cisterns sizes were obtained by using the side method were (1519.39±77.212 mm2 and 1558.45±74.480 mm2). In purebred T ewes, the average areas of the left and right udder cisterns were (1438.70±70.43 mm2 and 1418.68±67.952 mm2). These were significantly smaller than in purebred LC (2694.44±71.95 mm2 and 2693.48±69.340 mm2). The udder cistern areas were significantly higher in crosses with 25 %, 50 % and 75 % genetic proportion of specialized dairy breeds LC and EF, than in purebred IV and T ewes. The analyses showed that crossbreeding of IV with LC and EF and T with LC and EF considerably increases ewe‘s cistern size. © 2015, Hrvatska Mljekarska Udruga. All rights reserved. Source

Slamecka J.,University of Zurich | Slamecka J.,University of South Alabama | Slamecka J.,Research Institute for Animal Production Nitra | Salimova L.,University of Zurich | And 10 more authors.
Cell Cycle

Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to rapidly and efficiently reacquire pluripotency which together with their easy recovery makes them an attractive cell source for reprogramming. The reprogramming process as well as the resulting iPSC epigenome could potentially benefit from the unspecialized nature of AFSC. iPSC derived from AFSC also have potential in disease modeling, such as Down syndrome or β-thalassemia. Previous experiments involving AFSC reprogramming have largely relied on integrative vector transgene delivery and undefined serum-containing, feeder-dependent culture. Here, we describe non-integrative oriP/EBNA-1 episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of AFSC into iPSC and culture in fully chemically defined xeno-free conditions represented by vitronectin coating and E8 medium, a system that we found uniquely suited for this purpose. The derived AF-iPSC lines uniformly expressed a set of pluripotency markers Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 in a pattern typical for human primed PSC. Additionally, the cells formed teratomas, and were deemed pluripotent by PluriTest, a global expression microarray-based in-silico pluripotency assay. However, we found that the PluriTest scores were borderline, indicating a unique pluripotent signature in the defined condition. In the light of potential future clinical translation of iPSC technology, non-integrating reprogramming and chemically defined culture are more acceptable. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source

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