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Foskolos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Calsamiglia S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Chrenkova M.,Research Institute for Animal Production | Weisbjerg M.R.,University of Aarhus | Albanell E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Animal | Year: 2015

Kinetics of nutrient degradation in the rumen is an important component of feed evaluation systems for ruminants. The in situ technique is commonly used to obtain such dynamic parameters, but it requires cannulated animals and incubations last several days limiting its application in practice. On the other hand, feed industry relies strongly on NIRS to predict chemical composition of feeds and it has been used to predict nutrient degradability parameters. However, most of these studies were feedstuff specific, predicting degradability parameters of a particular feedstuff or category of feedstuffs, mainly forages or compound feeds and not grains and byproducts. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of NIRS to predict degradability parameters and effective degradation utilizing a wide range of feedstuffs commonly used in ruminant nutrition. A database of 809 feedstuffs was created. Feedstuffs were grouped as forages (FF; n=256), non-forages (NF; n=539) and of animal origin (n=14). In situ degradability data for dry matter (DM; n=665), CP (n=682) and NDF (n=100) were collected. Degradability was described in terms of washable fraction (a), slowly degradable fraction (b) and its rate of degradation (c). All samples were scanned from 1100 to 2500 nm using an NIRSystems 5000 scanning in reflectance mode. Calibrations were developed for all samples (ALL), FF and NF. Equations were validated with an external validation set of 20% of total samples. NIRS equations to predict the effective degradability and fractions a and b of DM, CP and NDF could be evaluated from being adequate for screening (r 2>0.77; ratio of performance to deviation (RPD)=2.0 to 2.9) to suitable for quantitative purposes (r 2>0.84; RPD=3.1 to 4.7), and some predictions were improved by group separation reducing the standard error of prediction. Similarly, the rate of degradation of CP (CP c) and DM (DM c) was predicted for screening purposes (RPDa2 and 2.5 for CP c and DM c, respectively). However, the rate of degradation of NDF was not predicted accurately (NDF c: r 2<0.75; RDP<2). © The Animal Consortium 2015.


PubMed | University of Aarhus, Research Institute for Animal Production and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2015

Kinetics of nutrient degradation in the rumen is an important component of feed evaluation systems for ruminants. The in situ technique is commonly used to obtain such dynamic parameters, but it requires cannulated animals and incubations last several days limiting its application in practice. On the other hand, feed industry relies strongly on NIRS to predict chemical composition of feeds and it has been used to predict nutrient degradability parameters. However, most of these studies were feedstuff specific, predicting degradability parameters of a particular feedstuff or category of feedstuffs, mainly forages or compound feeds and not grains and byproducts. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of NIRS to predict degradability parameters and effective degradation utilizing a wide range of feedstuffs commonly used in ruminant nutrition. A database of 809 feedstuffs was created. Feedstuffs were grouped as forages (FF; n=256), non-forages (NF; n=539) and of animal origin (n=14). In situ degradability data for dry matter (DM; n=665), CP (n=682) and NDF (n=100) were collected. Degradability was described in terms of washable fraction (a), slowly degradable fraction (b) and its rate of degradation (c). All samples were scanned from 1100 to 2500 nm using an NIRSystems 5000 scanning in reflectance mode. Calibrations were developed for all samples (ALL), FF and NF. Equations were validated with an external validation set of 20% of total samples. NIRS equations to predict the effective degradability and fractions a and b of DM, CP and NDF could be evaluated from being adequate for screening (r(2)>0.77; ratio of performance to deviation (RPD)=2.0 to 2.9) to suitable for quantitative purposes (r(2)>0.84; RPD=3.1 to 4.7), and some predictions were improved by group separation reducing the standard error of prediction. Similarly, the rate of degradation of CP (CP(c)) and DM (DM(c)) was predicted for screening purposes (RPD2 and 2.5 for CP(c) and DM(c), respectively). However, the rate of degradation of NDF was not predicted accurately (NDF(c) : r(2)<0.75; RDP<2).


Mirnawati,Andalas University | Rizal Y.,Andalas University | Marlida Y.,Andalas University | Kompiang I.P.,Research Institute for Animal Production
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

An experiment was conducted for the evaluation of Palm Kernel Cake Fermented (PKCF) by Aspergillus niger as a substitute for soybean meal protein in the diet of broiler. The experiment used a Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were arranged as follows: 1) 0% basic ration (0% PKCF), 2) 20% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 3) 40% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 4) 60% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 5) 80% substitution of soybean meal with PKCF, 6) 100% substitution of soybean meal with PKCF. The ration were formulated in iso protein 22% and iso caloric 3000 k cal/kg ration. This study used a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The parameters of this study were feed consumption, body weight gained, feed conversion and percentage of carcass. The result of this study showed that feed consumption, body weight gained, feed conversion and percentage of carcase were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by any treatment. In conclusion the Palm Kernel Cake Fermented (PKCF) by Aspergillus niger can be 100% a substitute of soybean meal protein or 17% in broiler ration. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Mirnawati,Andalas University | Rizal Y.,Andalas University | Marlida Y.,Andalas University | Kompiang I.P.,Research Institute for Animal Production
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of palm kernel cake through fermentation by Aspergillus niger with combination humid acid dosage and fermented time. The experiment used Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with 3 × 3 factorial and twice replication. The first factor was humic acid dosage: (1) 0 ppm, (2) 100 ppm and (3) 200 ppm. The second factor was fermented time: (1) 5 day, (2) 7 day and (3) 9 day. The parameters were dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber. The result of study showed that there was no significantly (p>0.05) interaction between humic acid dosage and fermented time to dry matter, but against crude protein and crude fiber, there were highly significant interaction (p<0.01). Humic acid dosage were not (p>0.05) effected to dry matter, but against crude protein and crude fiber, there were significant (p<0.01) effect. Fermented time showed that there were highly significant (p<0.01) effect to dry matter, crude protein and crude fiber. The conclusion was palm kernel cake which was fermented by Aspergilus niger showed that humic acid 100 ppm and fermented time 7 day had a better content. This condition can be seen in crude protein 23,20%, crude fiber 10,59% and dry matter 42.38%. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.


Mirnawati,Andalas University | Putu Kompiang I.,Research Institute for Animal Production | Latif S.A.,Andalas University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to improve the quality of palm kernel cake (PKC) through fermentation by combination of substrate composition and inoculum dosage. The experiment used complete randomize design (CRD) with 4 × 3 factorial and twice replication. The first factor was substrate composition(A): (1) PKC 80% + 20% of rice brand, (2) PKC 80% + 20% of feses, (3) PKC 70% + 30% rice brand, (4) PKC 70% + 30% of feses. The second factor was inoculum dosage (B): (1) 5%, (2) 10% and (3) 15%. The parameters were protease and cellulase activity, crude protein and crude fiber of palm kernel cake fermentation. The result of study showed that there was significantly (p<0.05) interaction between substrate composition and inoculum dosage to protease and cellulase activity, crude protein and crude fiber of palm kernel cake fermentation. Every factor from substrate composition and inoculum dosage showed that there were highly significant (p< 0.01) effect to protease and cellulase activity, crude protein and crude fiber of palm kernel cake fermentation. It can be concluded that palm kernel cake which was fermented by combination of substrate composition and inoculum dosage showed that substrate composition 80% PKC + 20% rice brand and inoculum dosage 10% had a better nutrient content of Palm kernel cake fermentation. This condition can be seen in protease activity (18.10 U/ml) cellulase activity (22.84 U/ml) crude protein (20.84%) and crude fiber (10.64%). © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.


PubMed | Institute of Animal Genetics, Constantine the Philosopher University, Research Institute for Animal Production and Slovak University of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2015

The aim of the present invivo study was to determine the effects of yucca powder extract added to the rabbit females feed mixtures on kindling and conception rate. Rabbit does of the experimental groups were fed with the standard diet enriched with supplement of yucca dry extract at doses of 5g/100kg feed (E1 group) or 20g/100kg feed (E2 group) for 50days. In our preliminary invivo results, we shown that conception rate was significantly higher in both experimental E1 and E2 groups (82.4% and 100.0%, respectively) than in the control group (47.1%). The kindling rate was also significantly higher in the experimental groups (70.6% and 100.0%, respectively) than in the control group (41.2%). The differences between control and yucca-treated groups in the number of liveborn, stillborn, and weaned pups per doe were not statistically significant. To understand possible endocrine mechanisms of yucca action on fertility rate, we have examined the influence of yucca extract additions on the release of steroid hormones by isolated and cultured rabbit ovarian fragments. Yucca additions promoted release of progesterone (at dose of 1g/mL, but not at doses of 10 and 100g/mL). Yucca addition at these doses did not affect testosterone or estradiol release. Our observations show the stimulatory effect of yucca consumption on rabbit fecundity, which can be due to its direct stimulatory influence on ovarian progesterone but not on testosterone or estradiol output.


PubMed | University of Molise, Constantine the Philosopher University and Research Institute for Animal Production
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zygote (Cambridge, England) | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Ficoll 70 into the cryopreservation medium containing sucrose and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on rabbit spermatozoa characteristics following freezing/thawing. This large molecular weight polymer elevates the viscosity of medium and, therefore, could better protect spermatozoa during the freezing process. Only ejaculates of good initial motility (>80%) were used in the experiments. Heterospermic pools were diluted in a freezing medium composed of commercial diluent, 16% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 2% sucrose (control) or in the same medium enriched with 4% Ficoll 70 (Ficoll) and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min before being plunged in liquid nitrogen. The quality of fresh and frozen/thawed spermatozoa samples was evaluated in vitro using the Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) system, fluorescent probes (peanut agglutinin (PNA)-Alexa Fluor; annexin V-FLOUS) and by electron microscopy. Better cryoprotective effect was observed when Ficoll 70 was added, compared with the semen cryopreserved with sucrose and DMSO only. The higher values (P < 0.05) of motile and progressively moving spermatozoa immediately after thawing and at 30 min following incubation at 37C were obtained in the Ficoll group. Moreover, the higher number (P < 0.05) of acrosome intact sperm was found in the Ficoll compared with the control group. Furthermore, no significant differences in kindling rates and number of pups born between frozen/thawed and fresh semen group were found. In conclusion, our study showed that the addition of Ficoll 70 might improve several characteristics of rabbit spermatozoa measured in vitro following freezing/thawing.


Bertkova I.,University of P.J. Šafarik | Hijova E.,University of P.J. Šafarik | Chmelarova A.,University of P.J. Šafarik | Mojzisova G.,University of P.J. Šafarik | And 4 more authors.
Neoplasma | Year: 2010

Diet interventions and natural bioactive supplements have now been extensively studied to reduce risks of colon cancer, which is one of the major public health problem throughout the world. The objective of our investigation was to study the effects of probiotic, prebiotic, nutritional plant extract, and plant oil on selected biochemical and immunological parameters in rats with colon cancer induced by N,N dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male and female Wistar albino rats were were fed by a high-fat (HF) diet (10% fat in the diet) and were divided into 9 groups: Control group; PRO group - HF diet supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum to provide 3 x 109 c.f.u. of strain/1 ml of medium; PRE group - HF diet supplemented with inulin enriched with oligofructose (2% of HF diet); HES group - HF diet supplemented with plant extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (1% of HF diet); OIL group - HF diet comprised Lini oleum virginale (2% of HF diet); and combination of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in the groups - PRO-PRE, PRO-HES, PRO-OIL, PRE-OIL. Carcinogenesis was iniciated with subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) two times at week interval and dietary treatments were continued for the six weeks. Application of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in all treated groups significantly decreased the activities of bacterial enzymes (p<0.001), the fecal bile acids concentration (p<0.01; p<0.001) and significantly increased serum TNFα level (p<0.001) in comparison to the control rats. The number of coliforms was reduced in PRO, PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups and significantly higher count of lactobacilli (p<0.05) was observed in PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups in compare with the controls. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds could exert a preventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH.


Kirchnerova K.,Research Institute for Animal Production | Vrskova M.,Research Institute for Animal Production | Huba J.,Research Institute for Animal Production
Potravinarstvo | Year: 2015

Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs), linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105), Red Holstein (R, n = 120) and Pinzgau (P, n = 74) breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA), using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%). Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-0.67%, essential FAs (EFA)-2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA)-25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI)-3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25.09%, resulting in statistically significant lower AI = 2.91. Bull MOR506 could be considered as potential improver of milk fat composition. The above described variability in the composition of milk fat of dairy cows and the subsequent relationships between these values suggest that the selection of the bull according to the fatty acid composition of milk fat may be considered. © 2015 Potravinarstvo.


PubMed | Research Institute for Animal Production
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2011

In three experiments involving a total of eighty-eight veal calves raised in groups and with access to straw, plasma hemoglobin (Hb) levels were determined at one week ante mortem. In each experiment, animals with similar Hb levels were paired. One animal of each pair was stimulated electrically (ES) post mortem whereas the other remained non-stimulated (NS). ES resulted in a more rapid pH fall in longissimus and semi-membranosus muscle. Carcass lean colour scores were improved at 24h, but not at 40 min, post mortem. At 24h post mortem longissimus muscle from ES carcasses showed a brighter colour, lower sarcomere length and lower protein solubility. No significant differences were observed in total haem pigment. After vacuum storage at 3C for 6 days, samples from ES carcasses had a brighter colour, higher drip and heating loss, lower maximum shear force values, and better ranking and scoring in taste panel preference tests than NS samples. The data indicate that a certain degree of denaturation of the sarcoplasmic proteins may be responsible for the observed effects of ES on water retention and muscle colour, while the improvement of tenderness in the present experiment was due to the prevention, by the treatment, of cold shortening. It is suggested that ES may possibly contribute to the introduction of alternative veal production methods, and thus improve animal welfare.

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