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Jekkel G.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Milisits G.,University of Kaposvár | Nagy I.,University of Kaposvár
Archiv fur Tierzucht | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour and the production and slaughter traits of growing rabbits reared in different alternative rearing systems and in conventional fattening cages. The experiment was carried out with 312 Pannon White growing rabbits between 5 and 11 weeks of age. According to the pen size, floor type and stocking density 8 experimental groups were created. For analyzing the different behavioural patterns 24 h video recordings were performed weekly by using infrared cameras. The body weight and the feed consumption of the rabbits were also measured weekly. At 11 weeks of age all of the animals were slaughtered and dissected. For the comparison of the behaviour and production of the experimental and control animals the Dunnett-test was used. It was established that the different alternative rearing methods have a significant effect only on the social and stereotype behaviour of the rabbits. The daily weight gain was highest in the control animals, while lowest in the rabbits reared on deep litter. The feed consumption, the feed conversion ratio and the slaughter characteristics were not affected by the rearing method. It was concluded that from the ethological point of view housing rabbits in pens - particularly on deep litter - has a favourable effect on both of the social and stereotype behaviours'frequency. However, when rabbits are reared on deep litter, some consumption of the litter material should be calculated, but it does not decrease the pellet consumption and the final liveweight of the animals significantly.


Szabo A.,University of Kaposvár | Mezes M.,Szent Istvan University | Romvari R.,University of Kaposvár | Febel H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The phospholipid (PL) fatty acyl chain (FA) composition (mol%) was determined in the kidney, liver, lung and brain of 8 avian species ranging in body mass from 150 g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19 kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo). In all organs except the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3, DHA) was found to show a negative allometric scaling (allometric exponent: B = - 0.18; - 0.20 and - 0.24, for kidney, liver and lung, respectively). With minor inter-organ differences, smaller birds had more n3 FAs and longer FA chains in the renal, hepatic and pulmonary PLs. Comparing our results with literature data on avian skeletal muscle, liver mitochondria and kidney microsomes and divergent mammalian tissues, the present findings in the kidney, liver and lung PLs seem to be a part of a general relationship termed "membranes as metabolic pacemakers". Marked negative allometric scaling was found furthermore for the tissue malondialdehyde concentrations in all organs except the brain (B = - 0.17; - 0.13 and - 0.05, respectively). In the liver and kidney a strong correlation was found between the tissue MDA and DHA levels, expressing the role of DHA in shaping the allometric properties of membrane lipids. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Brussow K.-P.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Torner H.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Ratky J.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

Deep intrauterine insemination in pigs allows sperm deposition only into one uterine horn, but bilateral fertilization of oocytes occurs. How the sperm reach the contralateral oviduct remains disputable. The aim of this experiment was to study possible transperitoneal and/or transuterine sperm migration ways. Follicle growth and ovulation were induced in 24 peripubertal gilts with eCG and hCG 72 h after eCG. Endoscopic intrauterine insemination (IUI) was performed 32 h after hCG with 20 ml of extended semen (60 × 10 6 spermatozoa) as follows: Group CONTROL (n=8) received IUI into the right horn, and the left horn served as non-treated control; Group LIGATURE (n=8) received IUI into the right horn, and the left horn was closed by endoscopic double ligature close to the bifurcation; Group INTRAPERITONEAL (IPI; n=8) received IUI into the right uterine horn, the left horn was closed by double ligature and semen was deposited intraperitoneally at the surface of the left ovary. Genital tracts were removed 65-66 h after hCG, the oviducts were flushed and ova (n=299) were analyzed for fertilization and cleavage. Furthermore, the accessory spermatozoa count/oocyte was graded as 0, without spermatozoa, 1, <5 spermatozoa, 2, 5- 50 spermatozoa, 3, 50-100 spermatozoa and 4, >100 spermatozoa. The results indicate that low dose IUI into one horn provides a lower grade of accessory spermatozoa in the contra-lateral side (1.6 vs. 2.8). No spermatozoa were found in ova flushed from oviducts of the ligated uterine horn, even after intraperitoneal insemination (P<0.05), and no fertilization occurred, respectively. Our results clearly indicate that after low dose IUI into one uterine horn, spermatozoa reach the contralateral oviduct via transuterine migration. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


van der Laan J.W.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Brightwell J.,Research Toxicology Center | Ratky J.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Stark C.,Bayer AG
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods | Year: 2010

As part of the RETHINK European FP6 Project an overview of the acceptability and usefulness of minipigs has been carried out in the regulatory arenas of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics, biocides and agrochemicals, chemicals and medical devices.The safety of new pharmaceuticals for human use should be tested in non-rodents, but the regulatory world is not too prescriptive regarding the choice of species. The choice is most often dogs through long tradition. When dogs are not appropriate, in many cases non-human primates are chosen as an alternative.From information in the public domain as well as literature from the EMA and FDA, it is clear that minipigs have already been identified as suitable to take the role of non-rodent species in toxicity testing of pharmaceutical products.In the field of foodstuffs, the pig is used more extensively because of the apparent similarity in the omnivorous food pattern and digestive tract between humans and pigs. The extensive use of pigs in this field provides historical data.In the field of medical devices the ISO Guidelines indicate that the pig is regarded as a suitable animal model because of its haematological and cardiovascular similarities to man. The pig is also mentioned as suitable for testing local effects after implantation.Political and societal support for using nonhuman primates is decreasing, and it is an appropriate time to consider the role of the minipig.We have reviewed the costs of testing in minipigs, and these are not significantly higher than the costs for a study in dogs. Economical reasons should therefore not be used to argue against the use of minipigs instead of dogs or monkeys.For most purposes, minipigs may be considered an acceptable choice as non-rodent species, provided adequate justification for this choice is made. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Egerszegi I.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Alm H.,FBN Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals | Ratky J.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Heleil B.,Kafr El Sheikh University | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental competence, mitochondrial characteristics and chromatin status of immature follicular porcine oocytes selected for their glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity by brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining. In Experiment 1, the oocyte parameters were determined in parallel right after BCB staining (T 0), after 22 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) (T22) and after 44 h of IVM (T44) (n=496). BCB-stained oocytes (BCB+) at T 0 were characterised by fibrillated chromatin filaments in their germinal vesicles (GV) and diakinesis stages whereas unstained (BCB-) oocytes at T0 contained in their GV mainly condensed stages of chromatin (P <0.05). After 22 h of IVM BCB+ oocytes showed a prominent chromatin configuration of metaphase I and after 44 h the majority developed a M II nuclear configuration in contrast to the BCB- group (P <0.0001). Differences were also observed between the two oocyte populations in their mitochondrial activity (P <0.05). At the beginning of IVM BCB+ oocytes were characterised by high mitochondrial activity in their cytoplasm. The BCB+ oocytes showed clear visible homogenous distributions of mitochondria (P <0.005) and contained more aggregated clusters of mitochondria in contrast to BCB- oocytes (P <0.005). In Experiment 2, 318 oocytes were tested for their G6PDH activity and introduced to IVM and IVF. Only oocytes from the BCB+ group, which were matured after 44 h up to the stage of M II (81.6%) were fertilised (17.4%), penetrated (46%) or activated (15.6%) after IVF. These results indicate a relationship between the G6PDH activity of porcine oocytes before IVM and their subsequent nuclear development, mitochondrial activity and aggregation. © 2010 CSIRO.


Sarlos P.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Egerszegi I.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Balogh O.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Molnar A.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

Seasonal changes of scrotal circumference, blood plasma testosterone concentration and semen characteristics were studied over a period of 12months in rams of the Hungarian Black Racka breed. Significant differences between seasonal averages of the parameters measured were established in multiple cases. As regards changes in scrotal circumference, the highest average value obtained in September (31.92cm) exceeded the lowest value measured in January (22.08cm) by 44.7%. It has been found that the season significantly affects the testicular dimensions (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant correlations were found between scrotal circumference and day length (r=0.43, P<0.05) as well as between scrotal circumference and monthly average temperature (r=0.73, P<0.01). The lowest blood plasma testosterone (T) level (2.31±0.14ng/ml) was measured in winter and the highest in autumn (17.81±0.7ng/ml). Significant differences between the seasonal values were observed on multiple occasions. The GnRH-provoked maximal testosterone level (Tincr) was found in autumn, in the breeding season (54.02±3.78ng/ml). A significant correlation was found between T and Tincr on the one hand and scrotal circumference on the other (r=0.62, P<0.01 and r=0.69, P<0.01, respectively). Ejaculate volume tended to increase from spring (0.52±0.03ml) to autumn (0.88±0.03ml). The lowest sperm concentration (4.92±0.13×109/ml) was measured in winter and the highest in summer (6.56±0.21×109/ml) (P<0.001). Total sperm count per ejaculate was the lowest in spring (3.15±0.23×109/ml) and the highest in autumn (5.22±0.45×109/ml) (P<0.001). Sperm motility was at a low level in February (4.42±0.20) and subsequently showed the highest values in the summer months, with similar monthly averages in June-August (5.00±0.00, P<0.001). The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was the highest in winter (18.48±3.23%) and the lowest in autumn (7.95±1.58%) (P<0.001), and it was significantly higher in February than in other months of the year (22.17±1.61%, P<0.001-P<0.02). The lowest number of deformed spermatozoa was observed in October (6.15±0.72%). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Revay T.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Bodzsar N.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Mobegi V.E.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Hanotte O.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2010

In this study, we assessed the maternal origin of six Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds using mitochondrial DNA information. Sequences of Hungarian chickens were compared with the D-loop chicken sequences annotated in the GenBank and to nine previously described reference haplotypes representing the main haplogroups of chicken. The first 530 bases of the D-loop region were sequenced in 74 chickens of nine populations. Eleven haplotypes (HIC1-HIC11) were observed from 17 variable sites. Three sequences (HIC3, HIC8 and HIC9) of our chickens were found as unique to Hungary when searched against the NCBI GenBank database. Hungarian domestic chicken mtDNA sequences could be assigned into three clades and probably two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 86% of the Hungarian haplotypes are related to the reference sequence that likely originated from the Indian subcontinent, while the minor part of our sequences presumably derive from South East Asia, China and Japan. © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Anandan S.,International Livestock Research Institute | Zoltan H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Khan A.A.,International Livestock Research Institute | Ravi D.,International Livestock Research Institute | Blummel M.,International Livestock Research Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The fodder value of sweet sorghum bagasse with leaf residues (SSBLR) remaining after juice extraction for bio-ethanol production as major diet ingredient was assessed in male growing sheep measuring intake, digestibility and growth rates. The SSBLR contributed about 450 g/kg in total mixed rations and was offered as mash (8. mm), pellets (16. mm) and feed block (SSBLR chopped). Chaffed SSBLR supplemented with the remaining concentrate components of the total mixed ration-offered for 2. h before the chaffed SSBLR-served as a control. Six sheep were randomly allocated to each treatment, balancing the group weight. Intake of all SSBLR based rations was generally very high exceeding 42 g/kg of sheep live weight in the control and feed block ration and intake was further increased to 52 and 56 g/kg in the mash and pellets rations, respectively. Observed live weight gain in sheep fed mash and pellets were 133 g/d and 130 g/d, respectively, compared to 90 g/d and 81 g/d observed in the feed block and control group, respectively. Organic matter digestibility was 0.59 and 0.58 in the mash and pellet group compared to 0.62 and 0.61 in the feed block and control group, respectively. All comparisons in mash and pellet versus feed block and control group were different (P<0.05). SSBLR can be utilized as major ration component thereby mitigating fodder shortages likely to arise from using sweet sorghum stalks for juice extraction for bio-ethanol production. Use of SSBLR as ration component for will also add to the economic viability of sweet sorghum ethanol value chains. In decentralized systems where juice is extracted from sweet sorghum stalks in the villages and options of processing SSBLR are limited, SSBLR can be used in chopped form with similar efficiency than as component of processed feed block. In centralized system, generating large quantities of SSBLR, processing feed into mash and pellets would be advantageous for supporting higher livestock productivity and lower feed transport costs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Hamilton C.K.,University of Guelph | Revay T.,University of Guelph | Revay T.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Domander R.,University of Guelph | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked (HSFY) is a member of the heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) family that is found in multiple copies on the Y chromosome and conserved in a number of species. Its function still remains unknown but in humans it is thought to play a role in spermatogenesis. Through real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses we determined that the HSFY family is largely expanded in cattle (~70 copies) compared with human (2 functional copies, 4 HSFY-similar copies). Unexpectedly, we found that it does not vary among individual bulls as a copy number variant (CNV). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we found that the copies are dispersed along the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq). HSFY expression in cattle appears restricted to the testis and its mRNA correlates positively with mRNA markers of spermatogonial and spermatocyte cells (UCHL1 and TRPC2, respectively) which suggests that HSFY is expressed (at least in part) in early germ cells. © 2011 Hamilton et al.


Kukovics S.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Nemeth T.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2014

Four kinds of lamb meat foods (Wiener sausage, ham, roasted meat, and roasted leg) were developed based on 8 different genotypes to improve lamb meat quality and quantity, and to study the differences among them. The stringiness, flavour, and odour of the products were judged in food sensory evaluation by a total of 265 (60% male and 40% female) randomly selected consumers. In stringiness and flavour five (from 1 to 5), and concerning odour three (from 1 to 3) categories were created according to decreasing quality. The consumers represented different age groups: below 20 years, between 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and above 70 years. The groups of consumers were involved in sheep farming, other animal farming, other agriculture sector, industry, catering, education, other service; administrative department of the state, were students, and others. Analyses of variance were calculated to estimate the effects of the genotype of lamb, the gender, age, and occupation of judging consumers on the sensory evaluation of the meat foods. In conclusion, new lamb meat foods were highly appreciated by consumers, who made definite distinctions among genotypes according to flavour, stinginess, and odour. There were significant interactions between gender, age, and occupation of consumers as well as sensory evaluation of various lamb meat foods.

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