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Jekkel G.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Milisits G.,University of Kaposvar | Nagy I.,University of Kaposvar
Archiv fur Tierzucht | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour and the production and slaughter traits of growing rabbits reared in different alternative rearing systems and in conventional fattening cages. The experiment was carried out with 312 Pannon White growing rabbits between 5 and 11 weeks of age. According to the pen size, floor type and stocking density 8 experimental groups were created. For analyzing the different behavioural patterns 24 h video recordings were performed weekly by using infrared cameras. The body weight and the feed consumption of the rabbits were also measured weekly. At 11 weeks of age all of the animals were slaughtered and dissected. For the comparison of the behaviour and production of the experimental and control animals the Dunnett-test was used. It was established that the different alternative rearing methods have a significant effect only on the social and stereotype behaviour of the rabbits. The daily weight gain was highest in the control animals, while lowest in the rabbits reared on deep litter. The feed consumption, the feed conversion ratio and the slaughter characteristics were not affected by the rearing method. It was concluded that from the ethological point of view housing rabbits in pens - particularly on deep litter - has a favourable effect on both of the social and stereotype behaviours'frequency. However, when rabbits are reared on deep litter, some consumption of the litter material should be calculated, but it does not decrease the pellet consumption and the final liveweight of the animals significantly.

Brussow K.-P.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Torner H.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Ratky J.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

Deep intrauterine insemination in pigs allows sperm deposition only into one uterine horn, but bilateral fertilization of oocytes occurs. How the sperm reach the contralateral oviduct remains disputable. The aim of this experiment was to study possible transperitoneal and/or transuterine sperm migration ways. Follicle growth and ovulation were induced in 24 peripubertal gilts with eCG and hCG 72 h after eCG. Endoscopic intrauterine insemination (IUI) was performed 32 h after hCG with 20 ml of extended semen (60 × 10 6 spermatozoa) as follows: Group CONTROL (n=8) received IUI into the right horn, and the left horn served as non-treated control; Group LIGATURE (n=8) received IUI into the right horn, and the left horn was closed by endoscopic double ligature close to the bifurcation; Group INTRAPERITONEAL (IPI; n=8) received IUI into the right uterine horn, the left horn was closed by double ligature and semen was deposited intraperitoneally at the surface of the left ovary. Genital tracts were removed 65-66 h after hCG, the oviducts were flushed and ova (n=299) were analyzed for fertilization and cleavage. Furthermore, the accessory spermatozoa count/oocyte was graded as 0, without spermatozoa, 1, <5 spermatozoa, 2, 5- 50 spermatozoa, 3, 50-100 spermatozoa and 4, >100 spermatozoa. The results indicate that low dose IUI into one horn provides a lower grade of accessory spermatozoa in the contra-lateral side (1.6 vs. 2.8). No spermatozoa were found in ova flushed from oviducts of the ligated uterine horn, even after intraperitoneal insemination (P<0.05), and no fertilization occurred, respectively. Our results clearly indicate that after low dose IUI into one uterine horn, spermatozoa reach the contralateral oviduct via transuterine migration. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

Hamilton C.K.,University of Guelph | Revay T.,University of Guelph | Revay T.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Domander R.,University of Guelph | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked (HSFY) is a member of the heat shock transcriptional factor (HSF) family that is found in multiple copies on the Y chromosome and conserved in a number of species. Its function still remains unknown but in humans it is thought to play a role in spermatogenesis. Through real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses we determined that the HSFY family is largely expanded in cattle (~70 copies) compared with human (2 functional copies, 4 HSFY-similar copies). Unexpectedly, we found that it does not vary among individual bulls as a copy number variant (CNV). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we found that the copies are dispersed along the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq). HSFY expression in cattle appears restricted to the testis and its mRNA correlates positively with mRNA markers of spermatogonial and spermatocyte cells (UCHL1 and TRPC2, respectively) which suggests that HSFY is expressed (at least in part) in early germ cells. © 2011 Hamilton et al.

van der Laan J.W.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Brightwell J.,Research Toxicology Center | Ratky J.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Stark C.,Bayer AG
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods | Year: 2010

As part of the RETHINK European FP6 Project an overview of the acceptability and usefulness of minipigs has been carried out in the regulatory arenas of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics, biocides and agrochemicals, chemicals and medical devices.The safety of new pharmaceuticals for human use should be tested in non-rodents, but the regulatory world is not too prescriptive regarding the choice of species. The choice is most often dogs through long tradition. When dogs are not appropriate, in many cases non-human primates are chosen as an alternative.From information in the public domain as well as literature from the EMA and FDA, it is clear that minipigs have already been identified as suitable to take the role of non-rodent species in toxicity testing of pharmaceutical products.In the field of foodstuffs, the pig is used more extensively because of the apparent similarity in the omnivorous food pattern and digestive tract between humans and pigs. The extensive use of pigs in this field provides historical data.In the field of medical devices the ISO Guidelines indicate that the pig is regarded as a suitable animal model because of its haematological and cardiovascular similarities to man. The pig is also mentioned as suitable for testing local effects after implantation.Political and societal support for using nonhuman primates is decreasing, and it is an appropriate time to consider the role of the minipig.We have reviewed the costs of testing in minipigs, and these are not significantly higher than the costs for a study in dogs. Economical reasons should therefore not be used to argue against the use of minipigs instead of dogs or monkeys.For most purposes, minipigs may be considered an acceptable choice as non-rodent species, provided adequate justification for this choice is made. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Szabo A.,University of Kaposvar | Mezes M.,Szent Istvan University | Romvari R.,University of Kaposvar | Febel H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The phospholipid (PL) fatty acyl chain (FA) composition (mol%) was determined in the kidney, liver, lung and brain of 8 avian species ranging in body mass from 150 g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19 kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo). In all organs except the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3, DHA) was found to show a negative allometric scaling (allometric exponent: B = - 0.18; - 0.20 and - 0.24, for kidney, liver and lung, respectively). With minor inter-organ differences, smaller birds had more n3 FAs and longer FA chains in the renal, hepatic and pulmonary PLs. Comparing our results with literature data on avian skeletal muscle, liver mitochondria and kidney microsomes and divergent mammalian tissues, the present findings in the kidney, liver and lung PLs seem to be a part of a general relationship termed "membranes as metabolic pacemakers". Marked negative allometric scaling was found furthermore for the tissue malondialdehyde concentrations in all organs except the brain (B = - 0.17; - 0.13 and - 0.05, respectively). In the liver and kidney a strong correlation was found between the tissue MDA and DHA levels, expressing the role of DHA in shaping the allometric properties of membrane lipids. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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