Research Institute for Animal Breeding

Hungary

Research Institute for Animal Breeding

Hungary
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Szabo A.,University of Kaposvár | Szabo A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Szabo-Fodor J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Febel H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding | And 3 more authors.
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica | Year: 2016

Adult male Wistar rats were enrolled in a study to test the acute hepatic effects of 50 mg/kg fumonisin B1 in feed for 5 days. Fumonisin B1 depressed growth and feed intake, and absolute and relative liver weight showed a significant increase. The proportions of C17:0, C18:3 n3, C22:5 n3 and C22:6 n3 fatty acids decreased in the hepatic phospholipid fraction. All proportional decreases modified the hepatocellular membrane lipids into a more rigid state. The fatty acid profile modifications were partly compensated for by endogenous glutathione (preventing the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes as initial phase lipid peroxidation indicators), while the enzymatic antioxidant defence system (glutathione peroxidase) was unaltered. In contrast, hepatic malondialdehyde, the cytotoxic product of end-phase lipid peroxidation showed a concentration increase even after 5 days of feeding. The results indicate a rather strong and rapid hepatic effect of FB1, immediately impairing membrane phospholipids, even before the enzymatic antioxidant defence is activated. © 2016 The Authors.


Kulcsar A.,University of Veterinary Medicine | Matis G.,University of Veterinary Medicine | Molnar A.,University of Pannonia | Petrilla J.,University of Veterinary Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2017

Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play key role in the first pass metabolism of orally ingested xenobiotics, providing a primary metabolic barrier, being of special importance in maintaining animal health and production. This study was aimed to investigate how intestinal drug-metabolizing CYPs can be modulated by nutritional factors in broiler chicken. We investigated the effects of the natural growth promoter (n-)butyrate of different origin (feed supplementation of protected or non-protected forms and/or inducing caecal microbial production by supporting higher level of dietary non-starch polysaccharides [NSP]) on the activity of duodenal CYPs. To observe the connection between intestinal CYP activity and butyrate concentration, the distribution of differently originated butyrate was also assessed by measuring its concentration in various intestinal segments and different vessels of portal and systemic circulation. Butyrate of different origin showed varying distribution properties as being absorbed from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal CYP1A and CYP2H2 activities were increased by dietary butyrate supplementation and by the increased caecal microbial butyrate production, while CYP3A37 activity was minimally influenced by microbial butyrate only. The present study proved that both dietary and microbial butyrate could alter the activity of CYPs in the duodenal epithelium. Our findings suggest that intestinal CYPs could be induced not only by the intestinal luminal butyrate, but also from basolateral side, by the already absorbed butyrate. Such action of butyrate can be of special importance from food safety and pharmacotherapeutic point of view as it may modify the metabolism and intestinal kinetics of simultaneously applied xenobiotics. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Ratky J.,Debrecen University | Egerszegi I.,Szent Istvan University | Pable T.,Vitafort AgroAsia Co | Balogh E.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding | And 3 more authors.
Archives Animal Breeding | Year: 2017

Cooperation of the Hungarian Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Nutrition (ATK) with the German Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN) goes back many decades. In 1988 the two departments of reproductive biology began a joint project concerning on ovulation investigation in Landrace pigs. This joint project laid the foundation for further joint projects and has existed for almost 30 years. Over the years, the main focus has always been on the events of the female reproductive tract in pigs, i.e., follicular growth, ovulation, transport of gametes in the oviduct, fertilization and early embryonic development. Nearly all studies were done under in vivo circumstances and using different clinical and endocrinological methods, enabling us to obtain more profound knowledge of the dynamics of reproductive processes. Even results considered to be basic scientific achievements were available for utilization in the daily practice of porcine reproductive management. Since the end of the 1990s, the common projects have been gradually shifted to the physiology of the Hungarian indigenous pig breed Mangalica. Research partners were convinced that modern utilization of indigenous pig breeds would open new doors for premium pork production. In addition to the Mangalica breed, this principal was broadened to non-European fatty-type native pig breeds as well and resulted in long-term, intercontinental scientific cooperation. © Author(s) 2017.


Szabo A.,University of Kaposvár | Szabo-Fodor J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Febel H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding | Romvari R.,University of Kaposvár | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2+10mg/kg, resp.), as compared to a toxin free control. Samplings were performed after 2 and 4weeks. Bodyweight of the T-2 fed group was lower after 4weeks; the liver weight increased dramatically. Red blood cell (RBC) Na+/K+ ATPase activity decreased after 4weeks in the T-2 group, it increased in the FB1 group and antagonism was found by the combined treatment. The RBC membrane fatty acid profile was modified by both toxins similarly during the entire feeding. After 4weeks T-2 alone and in combination (with FB1) was found to increase mean cell volume (MCV). The time-dependent alterations in the T-2 group were significant for MCV (increase) and the mean cell haemoglobin (increase). The active monovalent cation transport was altered by both mycotoxins. Most probably FB1 exerts its sodium pump activity modification via an altered ceramide metabolism (behenic acid decrease in the RBC membrane), while for T-2 toxin a moderate membrane disruption and enzyme (protein) synthesis inhibition was supposed (ca. 75% decrease of the sodium pump activity). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Szabo A.,University of Kaposvár | Szabo A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Szabo-Fodor J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Febel H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologica Hungarica | Year: 2016

Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion. In the liver mitochondrial PL FA composition, margaric acid (C17:0) proportion decreased in the separated toxin treatments compared to the combined setting. Oleic acid (C18:1 n9) proportion was increased and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6) was decreased in the FB1-treated group, while docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n3) was decreased in the separated treatments. The total monounsaturation was significantly higher in the FB1 group's mitochondrial PL FA profile. After 4 weeks, all toxin treatments decreased the blood plasma reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, and FB1 increased the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio. Both mycotoxins seem to cross the hepatocellular and the hepatic mitochondrial membrane, without drastic membrane disruption, as assessed from the PL FA composition, but inducing detectable lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiado, Budapest.


PubMed | Szent Istvan University, Research Institute for Animal Breeding, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Kaposvár
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta veterinaria Hungarica | Year: 2016

Adult male Wistar rats were enrolled in a study to test the acute hepatic effects of 50 mg/kg fumonisin B


Matis G.,Szent Istvan University | Kulcsar A.,Szent Istvan University | Turowski V.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Febel H.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding | And 2 more authors.
Domestic Animal Endocrinology | Year: 2015

The influence of butyrate on insulin signaling in chickens was studied because butyrate is produced during microbial fermentation in the large intestine of birds, and butyrate is widely used as a feed additive in animal production. Ross 308 broiler chickens received a daily intraingluvial bolus of sodium butyrate (0.25g/kg body weight) on days 20-24 of life (n = 10). Plasma butyrate concentration increased after receiving oral butyrate treatment (P < 0.001). Oral butyrate application was associated with decreased protein expression of insulin receptor β subunit (IRβ) in liver (P = 0.008) and both abdominal (P = 0.003) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.001), but with elevated IRβ expression in muscle (P = 0.045), assessed by Western blotting. The quantity of hepatic phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase was reduced in the butyrate-treated group (P = 0.007); further, mammalian target of rapamycin was downregulated by butyrate in liver (P < 0.001) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.038). Oral butyrate application provoked reduced systemic insulin sensitivity in chickens, indicated by elevated fasting blood glucose and subsequently, insulin level. However, responses of insulin signaling cascade to butyrate were tissue specific, suggesting that butyrate could act on glucose shifting among tissues by selectively increasing the glucose uptake of skeletal muscle via IRβ upregulation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Research Institute for Animal Breeding and Szent Istvan University
Type: | Journal: Domestic animal endocrinology | Year: 2014

The influence of butyrate on insulin signaling in chickens was studied because butyrate is produced during microbial fermentation in the large intestine of birds, and butyrate is widely used as a feed additive in animal production. Ross 308 broiler chickens received a daily intraingluvial bolus of sodium butyrate (0.25g/kg body weight) on days 20-24 of life (n = 10). Plasma butyrate concentration increased after receiving oral butyrate treatment (P < 0.001). Oral butyrate application was associated with decreased protein expression of insulin receptor subunit (IR) in liver (P = 0.008) and both abdominal (P = 0.003) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P < 0.001), but with elevated IR expression in muscle (P = 0.045), assessed by Western blotting. The quantity of hepatic phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase was reduced in the butyrate-treated group (P = 0.007); further, mammalian target of rapamycin was downregulated by butyrate in liver (P < 0.001) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.038). Oral butyrate application provoked reduced systemic insulin sensitivity in chickens, indicated by elevated fasting blood glucose and subsequently, insulin level. However, responses of insulin signaling cascade to butyrate were tissue specific, suggesting that butyrate could act on glucose shifting among tissues by selectively increasing the glucose uptake of skeletal muscle via IR upregulation.


Brussow K.-P.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Egerszegi I.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding | Ratky J.,Research Institute for Animal Breeding
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2014

The uterotubal junction (UTJ) and caudal isthmus are recognized as a functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir (SR). Spermatozoa are released from the SR in a complex and concerted action. However, whether this functionality is restricted only to the ovulatory period is still open to debate. Our study was aimed to analyze the presence of spermatozoa within the UTJ (SR), isthmus (ISTH) and ampulla (AMP) after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination (LIUI) either in the peri- (PERI) or post-ovulatory (POST) period or at mid cycle (MID). Each uterine horn of estrus synchronized gilts (n=12) was inseminated with 20 ml sperm (29.5×106 cells/ml). Oviducts were recovered 7 h after LIUI and separated into the UTJ, ISTH and AMP, and sections were flushed with 10 ml PBS+EDTA solution. After centrifugation, the sperm pellet was evaluated by Čeřovský staining. The median sperm numbers in the PERI, POST and MID groups were 578, 171 and 789 in the UTJ; 545, 233 and 713 in the ISTH; and 496, 280 and 926 in the AMP, respectively, and there were differences between the POST and MID groups (P<0.05) but not between the oviductal sections of each group (P>0.05). Compared with the MID group, the percent of intact sperm cells was higher (P<0.01) in the PERI and POST groups (32.8 vs. 66.4 and 76.8%). Also, the percentages of aberrations in the acrosome and tail were higher (P<0.05) in the MID group. Based on this, it can be assumed that the sperm reservoir is active during different phases of the estrus cycle. However, the mid-cycle oviduct environment considerably impairs sperm cell quality. © 2014, by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Research Institute for Animal Breeding, Herrgarden Haddebo Bruk and National Veterinary Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2015

This study investigated the relationship of the health of the newborn foal and (1) number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in the amniotic fluid, (2) bacteria present in the amniotic fluid and the venous umbilical blood, and (3) bacteria present in the uterus of the newly foaled mare. A further aim was to investigate relationships between the bacteriologic findings in the amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, and uterus postpartum. Samples were taken from 50 Standardbred trotter foaling mares from a well-managed stud in Sweden. Parturition was spontaneous in all cases. Length of pregnancy, parturition and postpartum complications, health status of the foal, the time between foaling and the expulsion of the placenta, and the number of postfoaling mares becoming pregnant after insemination were recorded. Amniotic fluid was collected when the amniotic vesicle was clearly visible; it was analyzed for bacteriology and occurrence of PMNLs. Umbilical blood was analyzed for the presence of bacteria and the concentration of serum amyloid A. The uterus of the mare was swabbed for bacteriology 6 to 17 hours postpartum. A blood sample was taken from the foal before administering plasma. The foals were divided into two groups: group 1 required up to 2 hours to rise after birth (2 hours; 31 foals) and group 2 required more than two hours (>2 hours; 19 foals). The length of gestation varied between 332 and 356 days; there was no significant difference in gestation length between the two foal groups. Partus and postpartum complications occurred in a significantly higher proportion of mares giving birth to group 2 foals than group 1 foals (P = 0.02), although uterine culture postpartum and the subsequent pregnancy rate per season were not different between the groups. Compromised health status was significantly higher among foals belonging to group 2 than group 1 (P = 0.001). Most of the amniotic samples contained 5% or less PMNLs. Only three samples contained more than 30% PMNLs; group 2 foals had the highest percentage of PMNLs. Bacterial growth was found in both amniotic fluid (57%) and umbilical blood (35%) in mares irrespective of whether their foals were healthy or compromised. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequent bacteria. There were no differences in bacterial occurrence in amniotic fluid or in umbilical blood between the two foal groups.

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