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Connolly S.J.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Wallentin L.,Uppsala University | Ezekowitz M.D.,Lankenau Institute for Medical Research and the Heart Center | Eikelboom J.,Hamilton Health Sciences | And 49 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND - : During follow-up of between 1 and 3 years in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, 2 doses of dabigatran etexilate were shown to be effective and safe for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. METHODS AND RESULTS - : Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) trial if they had not permanently discontinued study medication at the time of their final RE-LY study visit. Enrolled patients continued to receive the double-blind dabigatran dose received in RE-LY, for up to 28 months of follow up after RE-LY (median follow-up, 2.3 years). There were 5851 patients enrolled, representing 48% of patients originally randomly assigned to receive dabigatran in RE-LY and 86% of RELY-ABLE-eligible patients. Rates of stroke or systemic embolism were 1.46% and 1.60%/y on dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice daily, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.20). Rates of major hemorrhage were 3.74% and 2.99%/y on dabigatran 150 and 110 mg (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53). Rates of death were 3.02% and 3.10%/y (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.19). Rates of hemorrhagic stroke were 0.13% and 0.14%/y. CONCLUSIONS - : During 2.3 years of continued treatment with dabigatran after RE-LY, there was a higher rate of major bleeding with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily in comparison with 110 mg, and similar rates of stroke and death. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION - : URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00808067. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Diener H.-C.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Connolly S.J.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Ezekowitz M.D.,Lankenau Institute for Medical Research and the Heart Center | Wallentin L.,Uppsala University | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: In the Randomised Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, dabigatran reduced occurrence of both stroke and haemorrhage compared with warfarin in patients who had atrial fibrillation and were at increased risk of stroke. We aimed to assess the effects of dabigatran compared with warfarin in the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Methods: In the RE-LY trial, 18 113 patients from 967 centres in 44 countries were randomly assigned to 110 mg or 150 mg dabigatran twice daily or to warfarin dose adjusted to international normalised ratio 2·0 to 3·0. Median follow-up was 2·0 years (IQR 1·14-2·86), and the primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism. The primary safety outcome was major haemorrhage. Patients and investigators were aware of whether patients received warfarin or dabigatran, but not of dabigatran dose, and event adjudicators were masked to treatment. In a predefined analysis, we investigated the outcomes of the RE-LY trial in subgroups of patients with or without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. RE-LY is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00262600. Findings: Within the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, 1195 patients were from the 110 mg dabigatran group, 1233 from the 150 mg dabigatran group, and 1195 from the warfarin group. Stroke or systemic embolism occurred in 65 patients (2·78% per year) on warfarin compared with 55 (2·32% per year) on 110 mg dabigatran (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·58-1·20) and 51 (2·07% per year) on 150 mg dabigatran (0·75, 0·52-1·08). The rate of major bleeding was significantly lower in patients on 110 mg dabigatran (RR 0·66, 95% CI 0·48-0·90) and similar in those on 150 mg dabigatran (RR 1·01; 95% CI 0·77-1·34) compared with those on warfarin. The effects of both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin were not significantly different between patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack and those without for any of the outcomes from RE-LY apart from vascular death (110 mg group compared with warfarin group, interaction p=0·038). Interpretation: In patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, the effects of 110 mg dabigatran and 150 mg dabigatran on stroke or systemic embolism were similar to those of warfarin. Most effects of both dabigatran doses were consistent in patients with versus those without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hori M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Connolly S.J.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Ezekowitz M.D.,Lankenau Institute for Medical Research and the Heart Center | Reilly P.A.,Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals | And 2 more authors.
Circulation Journal | Year: 2011

Background: RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy) is an international multicenter study (18,113 patients from 967 centers in 44 countries) that demonstrated the ability of dabigatran to reduce the occurrence of both stroke and hemorrhage in patients who had atrial fibrillation (AF) with high risks of stroke compared with patients who received warfarin. From Japan, 326 patients were randomized in RE-LY. Methods and Results: RE-LY was designed to compare 2 fixed doses (110 mg or 150 mg, twice daily) of dabigatran, each administered in a blinded manner, with open-label use of warfarin. There were no major differences in patient demographic information among the overall study population and Japanese patients. However, in Japanese patients, the proportion of prior stroke was higher but prior myocardial infarction was lower than in the overall. The yearly rate for the primary endpoints (stroke and systemic embolism) was 1.38, 0.67 and 2.65%/year for 110 mg and 150 mg dabigatran twice daily and warfarin, respectively. These results were similar to the overall results (1.54, 1.11 and 1.71%/year for each group, respectively). For any bleeding, the relative risk of dabigatran at 110 mg and 150 mg twice daily over warfarin was 0.79 and 1.06, respectively, which was similar to the findings overall (dabigatran 110 mg twice daily: 0.78; 150 mg twice daily: 0.91). Conclusions: In RE-LY, the efficacy and safety profiles of dabigatran for Japanese AF patients at high risk of stroke were essentially the same as for the study population overall.


Van Spall H.G.C.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Wallentin L.,Uppsala University | Yusuf S.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Eikelboom J.W.,Hamilton Health Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Background-: The outcome of atrial fibrillation patients on warfarin partially depends on maintaining adequate time in therapeutic International Normalized Ratio range (TTR). Large differences in TTR have been reported between centers and countries. The association between warfarin dosing practice, TTR, and clinical outcomes was evaluated in Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial patients receiving warfarin. Methods and Results-: RE-LY provided an algorithm for warfarin dosing, recommending no change for in-range, and 10% to 15% weekly dose changes for out-of-range International Normalized Ratio values. We determined whether dose adjustments were consistent with algorithm recommendations but could not verify whether providers used the algorithm. Using multilevel regression models to adjust for patient, center, and country characteristics, we assessed whether algorithm-consistent warfarin dosing could predict patient TTR and the composite outcome of stroke, systemic embolism, or major hemorrhage. We included 6022 nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients from 912 centers in 44 countries. We found a strong association between the proportion of algorithm-consistent warfarin doses and mean country TTR (R=0.65). The degree of algorithm- consistency accounted for 87% of the between-center and 55% of the between-country TTR variation. Each 10% increase in center algorithm-consistent dosing independently predicted a 6.12% increase in TTR (95% confidence interval, 5.65-6.59) and an 8% decrease in rate of the composite clinical outcome (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.00). Conclusions-: Adherence, intentional or not, to a simple warfarin dosing algorithm predicts improved TTR and accounts for considerable TTR variation between centers and countries. Systems facilitating algorithm-based warfarin dosing could optimize anticoagulation quality and improve clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation on a global scale. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.


Liesenfeld K.-H.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Lehr T.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Dansirikul C.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Reilly P.A.,Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2011

Background: Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is an orally absorbed prodrug of dabigatran, a thrombin inhibitor that exerts potent anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity. Objectives: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy (RE-LY) trial and to quantify the effect of selected factors on pharmacokinetic (PK) model parameters. Patients and methods: A total of 27706 dabigatran plasma concentrations from 9522 patients who received DE 110 or 150mg twice daily were analyzed with non-linear mixed-effects modeling. Results: The pharmacokinetics of dabigatran were best described by a two-compartment disposition model with first-order absorption. The covariates creatinine clearance (CRCL), age, sex, heart failure and the ethnic subgroup 'South Asian' exhibited statistically significant effects on apparent clearance of dabigatran. Body weight and hemoglobin significantly influenced the apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment. Concomitant medication with proton-pump inhibitors, amiodarone and verapamil significantly affected the bioavailability. However, all of the statistically significant factors that were identified, except for renal function status, showed only small to moderate effects (<26% change in exposure at steady state). On the basis of simulations from the final population PK model, a dose of 75mg twice daily would result in similar exposure for severely renally impaired patients with CRCL of 15-30mLmin -1 and patients with normal renal function receiving 150mg twice daily. Conclusions: The analysis provides a thorough PK characterization of dabigatran in the AF patient population from RE-LY. None of the covariates investigated, with the exception of renal function, warrants dose adjustment. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.


Connolly S.J.,Population Health Research Institute | Eikelboom J.,Population Health Research Institute | Dorian P.,University of Toronto | Hohnloser S.H.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 3 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2013

AimsPatients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of stroke. Betrixaban is a novel oral factor Xa inhibitor administered once daily, mostly excreted unchanged in the bile and with low (17%) renal excretion.Methods and resultsPatients with AF and more than one risk factor for stroke were randomized to one of three blinded doses of betrixaban (40, 60, or 80 mg once daily) or unblinded warfarin, adjusted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The primary outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. The mean follow-up was 147 days. Among 508 patients randomized, the mean CHADS 2 score was 2.2; 87% of patients had previously received vitamin K antagonist therapy. The time in therapeutic range on warfarin was 63.4%. There were one, five, five, and seven patients with a primary outcome on betrixaban 40, 60, 80 mg daily, or warfarin, respectively. The rate of the primary outcome was lowest on betrixaban 40 mg (hazard ratio compared with warfarin = 0.14, exact stratified log-rank P-value 0.04, unadjusted for multiple testing). Rates of the primary outcome with betrixaban 60 or 80 mg were more similar to those of wafarin. Two ischaemic strokes occurred, one each on betrixaban 60 and 80 mg daily. There were two vascular deaths, one each on betrixaban 40 mg and warfarin. Betrixaban was associated with higher rates of diarrhoea than warfarin.ConclusionBetrixaban was well tolerated and had similar or lower rates of bleeding compared with well-controlled warfarin in patients with AF at risk for stroke. © 2012.The Author.

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