Shivaprasad B.M.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Shivaprasad B.M.,Rajarajeshwari Dental College and Hospital |
Pradeep A.R.,Hospital and Research Institute
Disease Markers | Year: 2013
Recently discovered interleukin 29 (IL-29) has antiviral properties and its production is induced by herpes viruses. This study was aimed at analyzing the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on IL-29 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients. A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy group (group 1; n=20), chronic periodontitis group (group 2; n=20), and aggressive periodontitis group (group 3; n=20). GCF samples collected from each subject at baseline and 6-8 weeks after scaling and root planing were quantified for IL-29 levels using ELISA. The mean IL-29 concentration in GCF was found to be highest in group 3 (92.37 pg/μl). The mean IL-29 level in group 1 and group 2 was 36.88 pg/μl and 69.35 pg/μl respectively. After scaling and root planing, the mean concentration of IL-29 in GCF was increased to 85.99 pg/μl in group 2 and to 114.64 pg/μl in group 3. Results of the present study indicate that antiviral IL-29 level was highest in GCF of aggressive periodontitis patients and least in subjects with healthy periodontium, while that of chronic periodontitis lying in between. After non-surgical periodontal therapy, IL-29 levels increased both in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in treating periodontitis. © 2013 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
Grover H.S.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Luthra S.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Maroo S.,Hospital and Research Institute
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association | Year: 2014
Statins [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase], are wonder drugs that have reshaped the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular diseases. However, evidence from various studies indicates existence of many statin-induced side effects such as myopathies, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, impaired myocardial contractility, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and erectile dysfunction (ED). Physician awareness of these side effects is reported to be very low even for the adverse effects (AEs) most widely reported by patients. This can lead to incorrect treatment decisions, compromised patient care, and an increase in patient morbidity. Therefore, the aim of this article is to highlight the AEs of statin therapy as well as rational management of these complications to further improve safety of these excellent drugs. © 2013.
Riyat M.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Sharma D.C.,Hospital and Research Institute
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2010
The administration of strontium salt is known to be beneficial for bones in preventing calcium loss and osteoporosis. Therefore, we decided to study if strontium treatment affects calcium release from teeth in vitro. Extracted carious as well as non- carious teeth were washed, cleaned, and dried. These were individually immersed in 25 ml of 1% lactic acid at 37°C for 24 h, and the amount of calcium released was measured. The rate of calcium release from these teeth was again determined after their exposure to M/4 strontium chloride for 1 month at 37°C. It was found that: (1) the rate of calcium release from non-carious teeth was significantly higher than carious teeth, possibly because there was more calcium present, (2) the rate of calcium release was almost halved after strontium treatment in both groups of teeth, (3) the Vicker's microhardness of non-carious teeth was higher than those of carious teeth, and (4) strontium treatment did not affect hardness. Strontium treatment may be beneficial in reducing loss of calcium from intact teeth-non- carious as well as carious-and this beneficial effect of strontium is unrelated to change in teeth hardness. ©Humana Press Inc. 2009.
Grover H.S.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Luthra S.,Hospital and Research Institute
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine | Year: 2012
The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965 by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) and the WHO defined probiotics as "live micro-organisms",which, when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics utilise naturally occurring bacteria to confer a health benefit when administered in adequate amounts. Most of the probiotics are products of two groups of bacteria, lactobacillus or bifidobacterium. Probiotics have been extensively studied for their health promoting effects. During the last decade they have also been studied for their role in promoting oral health. Even though these studies are yielding positive results, they need to be further evaluated and more studies need to be conducted.
Elavarashi E.,Sri Ramachandra University |
Kindo A.J.,Sri Ramachandra University |
Kalyani J.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Sudha R.,Sri Ramachandra University
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2014
Background: Superficial fungal infections have a major impact on cosmetic health, affecting more than 20-25% of the global population, which is predominantly caused by dermatophytes. As per literature search, molecular strain typing of dermatophytes has not been investigated in India. Therefore, the present study was carried out to characterise the dermatophyte species and strains by molecular methods. Objective: To analyse the genotype variability by applying polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting using a simple sequence repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA) 4 primer to identify the species and strain variations among the dermatophytes isolated from a tertiary care centre in Chennai. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, 81 dermatophytes were isolated and included for the present study. A simple sequence repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA) 4 was used as a single primer in the amplification process. Results: The (GACA) 4 -based PCR successfully amplified all the clinical isolates. Trichophyton rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii produced identical band profiles, where the latter could not be differentiated from the T. rubrum, which are being reported for the first time from south India. Epidermophyton floccosum produced species-specific band profiles. Intra-species variability was not observed among the T. rubrum and E. floccosum isolates. T. mentagrophytes produced three simple, distinct band patterns, which are surprisingly different from the earlier studies. Conclusion: The PCR-based genotype using the short primer is rapid and precise in direct identification of dermatophyte isolates by one-step PCR to the species level and strain discrimination of the T. mentagrophytes variants.
Anand R.,Public-i |
Prasad S.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Menon I.,Its Center For Dental Studies And Research
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014
The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.
Ohshima K.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute |
Inoue K.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute |
Fujiwara A.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute |
Hatakeyama K.,Shizuoka Cancer Center Research Institute |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background: Exosomes play a major role in cell-to-cell communication, targeting cells to transfer exosomal molecules including proteins,mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) by an endocytosis-like pathway.miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules on average 22 nucleotides in length that regulate numerous biological processes including cancer pathogenesis and mediate gene downregulation by targetingmRNAs to induce RNA degradation and/or interferingwith translation. Recent reports imply that miRNAs can be stably detected in circulating plasma and serum since miRNAs are packaged by exosomes to be protected from RNA degradation. Thus, profiling exosomal miRNAs are in need to clarify intercellular signaling and discover a novel disease marker as well. Methodology/Principal Findings: Exosomes were isolated from cultured cancer cell lines and their quality was validated by analyses of transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. One of the cell lines tested, a metastatic gastric cancer cell line, AZ-P7a, showed the highest RNA yield in the released exosomes and distinctive shape in morphology. In addition, RNAs were isolated from cells and culture media, and profiles of these three miRNA fractions were obtained using microarray analysis. By comparing signal intensities of microarray data and the following validation using RT-PCR analysis, we found that let-7 miRNA family was abundant in both the intracellular and extracellular fractions from AZ-P7a cells, while low metastatic AZ-521, the parental cell line of AZ-P7a, as well as other cancer cell lines showed no such propensity. Conclusions/Significance: The enrichment of let-7 miRNA family in the extracellular fractions, particularly, in the exosomes from AZ-P7a cells may reflect their oncogenic characteristics including tumorigenesis and metastasis. Since let-7 miRNAs generally play a tumor-suppressive role as targeting oncogenes such as RAS and HMGA2, our results suggest that AZ-P7a cells release let-7 miRNAs via exosomes into the extracellular environment to maintain their oncogenesis. © 2010 Ohshima et al.
Bedford T.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center |
Riley S.,Imperial College London |
Riley S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Barr I.G.,World Health Organization |
And 26 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015
Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2 viruses, on the basis of analyses of 9,604 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses from 2000 to 2012. Whereas genetic variants of A/H3N2 viruses did not persist locally between epidemics and were reseeded from East and Southeast Asia, genetic variants of A/H1N1 and B viruses persisted across several seasons and exhibited complex global dynamics with East and Southeast Asia playing a limited role in disseminating new variants. The less frequent global movement of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses coincided with slower rates of antigenic evolution, lower ages of infection, and smaller, less frequent epidemics compared to A/H3N2 viruses. Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Kim Y.-I.,Seoul National University |
Kang H.G.,National Cancer Center |
Kim T.S.,Hospital and Research Institute |
Kim S.-K.,Hospital and Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014
Objective: Percutaneous stabilization (PS; percutaneous flexible nailing and intramedullary bone cement injection) was performed at lower extremity long bones in patients with multiple bone metastases with short life expectancy to get mechanical stability and local tumor control. We evaluated the usefulness of PS by clinical status, F-18-FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy (BS). Methods: Patients comprised 15 patients (total 20 sites) who had undergone PS for the metastatic bone tumors of lower extremity long bones (femur and tibia). After percutaneous flexible nailing, bone cement was injected (mean amount = 15.5 ± 6.4 ml). Patients' clinical status was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Qualitative assessment of PET-CT and BS was categorized by improved, stable and aggravated states of PS lesion. Quantitative assessment of PET-CT was performed by maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean) . Results: PS was performed in all of the patients without complication, and showed significant pain improvement of VAS (7.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3, P < 0.001). PS lesion showed improved state in 65% (13/20) and stable state in 35% (7/20). However, naive bony metastatic lesion showed mostly aggravated state in 90% (19/20) in the same patients, which was significantly different compared with PS lesion (P < 0.001). In PS lesion, SUVmax (10.1 ± 6.9 vs. 7.1 ± 5.2, P = 0.008) and SUVmean (6.2 ± 4.8 vs. 4.6 ± 3.7, P = 0.008) showed significantly decreased uptake after PS . Conclusion: By PS in lower extremity long bones, patients can reduce regional pain, and has the possibility of local tumor control. PS can be performed for lower extremity bone metastasis in poor general condition to perform conventional intramedullary nailing . © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elavarashi E.,Sri Ramachandra University |
Kindo A.J.,Sri Ramachandra University |
Kalyani J.,Hospital and Research Institute
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013
Purpose: A pan fungal primer targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region and optimization of PCR-RFLP using a dermatophyte specific primer targeted the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region were performed for the identification of dermato- phyte species and strains directly from clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty eight speci- mens (129 skin scrapings and 9 nail clippings) from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were collected and sub- jected to direct microscopy and culture. Among them, 66 skin scrapings and 3 nail clippings were processed for genotyping by PCR-RFLP analysis using the Mva I, Hae III and the Dde I restriction enzymes. Results: Of the 138 specimens, 81 specimens were positive for dermatophytosis, the most common one being Trichophy- ton rubrum (47), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25) and Epidermophyton floccosum (9). Of the 47 T. rubrum iso- lates, 10 were T. rubrum var. raubitschekii which were identi- fied phenotypically as urease positive and by DNA sequencing. Since they exhibited minor morphological and physiological features, they have currently been synonymized with T. rubrum. Of the 25 T. mentagrophytes isolates, three were Trichophyton interdigitale, which were identified by DNA sequencing. Among the 66 skin specimens smear, culture and PCR showed the presence of dermatophytes in 36 (54.54%), 42 (63.63%) and 47 (71.21%) cases respectively. Among the three nail speci- mens, only one was found to be positive for dermatophytosis by smear, culture and PCR. Conclusion: Amplification of the dermatophyte specific prim- er is appropriate in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical material. PCR targeting the ITS region by us- ing the Mva I and the Dde I enzymes was equally good for the RFLP analysis. However, by using the above three restriction enzymes, no strain variations were detected among the T. ru- brum and the T. mentagrophytes strains.