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Little Rock, AR, United States

Thrailkill K.M.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Thrailkill K.M.,Research Institute and 1 Childrens Way | Moreau C.S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Moreau C.S.,Research Institute and 1 Childrens Way | And 12 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2010

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of renal injury, can bind matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and inhibit its degradation, thereby sustaining MMP-9 proteolytic activity. MMP-9 is produced by renal podocytes, and podocyte MMP production can be modified by high ambient glucose levels. Moreover, dysregulation of MMP-9 activity, gene expression, or urine concentrations has been demonstrated in T2DM-associated nephropathy and in non-diabetic proteinuric renal diseases. Our objective was to determine whether NGAL/MMP-9 dysregulation might contribute to or serve as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 DM (T1DM). Plasma MMP-9, and urine NGAL and MMP-9 concentrations were measured in 121 T1DM and 55 control subjects and examined relative to indicators of glycemia, renal function, and degree of albuminuria. T1DM was associated with a significant increase in urinary excretion of both NGAL and MMP-9, and urine NGAL:Cr (NGAL corrected to urine creatinine) and urine MMP-9:Cr concentrations were highly correlated with each other. Both were also positively correlated with measurements of glycemic control and with albuminuria. Plasma MMP-9, urine MMP-9, and urine NGAL concentrations were significantly higher in females compared to males, and urine MMP-9:Cr concentrations displayed a menstrual cycle specific pattern. Increased urinary excretion of NGAL and MMP-9 supports a role for NGAL/MMP-9 dysregulation in renal dysfunction; moreover, gender-specific differences could support a gender contribution to pathological mechanisms or susceptibility for the development of renal complications in diabetes mellitus. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Thrailkill K.M.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Thrailkill K.M.,Research Institute and 1 Childrens Way | Moreau C.S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Moreau C.S.,Research Institute and 1 Childrens Way | And 14 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Background: In the interest of preserving residual insulin secretory capacity present at the time of diagnosis with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we compared the efficacy of starting insulin pump therapy at diagnosis with standard multiple daily insulin injections (MDIs). Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, pilot trial comparing MDI therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy (pump therapy) in 24 patients, 8-18 years old, with newly diagnosed T1D. Subjects were evaluated at enrollment and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initial diagnosis of T1D. Preservation of insulin secretion, measured by mixed-meal-stimulated C-peptide secretion, was compared after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Between-group differences in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), continuous glucose sensor data, insulin utilization, anthropometric measures, and patient satisfaction with therapy were also compared at multiple time points. Results: Initiation of pump therapy within 1 month of diagnosis resulted in consistently higher mixed-meal tolerance test-stimulated C-peptide values at all time points, although these differences were not statistically significant. Nonetheless, improved glycemic control was observed in insulin pump-treated subjects (more time spent with normoglycemia, better mean HbA1c), and pump-treated subjects reported comparatively greater satisfaction with route of treatment administration. Conclusions: Initiation of insulin pump therapy at diagnosis improved glycemic control, was well tolerated, and contributed to improved patient satisfaction with treatment. This study also suggests that earlier use of pump therapy might help to preserve residual β-cell function, although a larger clinical trial would be required to confirm this. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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