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Berardo A.,Ghent University | De Maere H.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | Stavropoulou D.A.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Rysman T.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2016

The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

De Maere H.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | De Maere H.,ISA Group | De Mey E.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | Baca M.,University of Silesia | And 4 more authors.
Acta Chimica Slovenica | Year: 2014

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of hemin, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), and zinc(II)protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) in Parma ham was developed. The detection was done by means of a universal DAD-detector, whereby quantification of the three naturally occurring protoporphyrins was carried out at λ = 414 nm, i.e., very close to the respective maxima of their Soret bands. The extraction thereof from the meat matrix was done by a mixture of acetone and chloroacetic acid (100 mL + 0.2 g). Usage of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (THPP) as a surrogate standard and its detection fixed at λ= 444 nm, allowed to obtain accurate (ca. 96%) recovery results. Established concentrations of hemin, Zn(II)PPIX, and PPIX in the Parma ham samples were 15.97, 19.96 and 1.52 μg g-1, respectively.

De Mey E.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | Viaene J.,Free University of Brussels | Dejaegher B.,Free University of Brussels | De Maere H.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | And 5 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014

To estimate the risk of N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) formation from piperidine in dry fermented sausages, the influences of pH and water activity (aw) were investigated using two protein-based liquid systems. In the first system (NaCl system), sodium chloride solutions (0-30 %) were used to reduce the aw (between 0.99 and. 0.79) at two pH values (pH 4.0 and 5.0). At pH 4.0, reducing aw through the addition of salt significantly decreased the level of NPIP from 30.8 ± 2.1 to 6.2 ± 0.2 μg/ml. However, these extreme NaCl concentrations do not exist in dry fermented sausages (only ca. 3 %). A second system (polyethylene glycol (PEG) system), in which PEG was added to reduce aw, was also developed. A rotatable central composite design (RCCD) was used to evaluate the influences of pH (3.0–7.0), aw (0.80–0.99) and incubation time (1.3–98.7 h) on the response NPIP in the PEG system. A quadratic polynomial model was built to describe the response behaviour as a function of the factors examined. The response surface plots showed a significant increase in NPIP levels at longer incubation times, higher aw and lower pH. Within the experimental domain, at 79 h, pH 3.8 and aw 0.952, maximum NPIP levels of 110.0 and 113.6 μg/ml were predicted and measured, respectively. The model demonstrated the importance of controlling the pH and aw during the production of the sausages. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Neyrinck E.,Ghent University | De Smet S.,Ghent University | Vermeulen L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Telleir D.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | And 5 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015

Destructured zones in the core of cooked ham are associated with PSE in terms of biochemical characteristics. In this study, the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the suitability of fresh pork for the production of cooked ham was investigated. Using NIR spectra obtained in a first trial (inducing PSE characteristics in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles) and in a second trial (collecting Semimembranosus (SM) samples either with or without presence of visual PSE characteristics) resulted in 93.3 and 90.0 % correct classification after cross-validation for respectively the LTL and SM samples. In a third experiment, 48 fresh hams were processed to high-quality cooked hams, sliced, and visually classified as inferior or normal quality (i.e., presence or absence of destructured zones, respectively). Measuring NIR spectra on the Biceps femoris (BF) muscle after deboning resulted in a 56.5 % correct classification after cross-validation for inferior-quality hams. It can be concluded that NIRS has potential to discriminate PSE from normal pork. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Vercammen A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Vanoirbeek K.G.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lurquin I.,Catholic University of Leuven | Steen L.,Research Group for Technology and Quality of Animal Products | And 5 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2011

The inactivation of different spoilage organisms and surrogate pathogens in a cooked ham model product by high pressure (HP) treatment (100-700 MPa, 5-40 °C, 10 min) was investigated. A 5 log reduction could be achieved at ≥ 600 MPa at ≥ 25 °C. Subsequently, the shelf-life of packaged sliced product was studied during storage (7 °C) after treatment at 600 MPa (10 °C, 10 min) in combination with caprylic acid and Purasal®. Without HP treatment, a plate count of 6 log CFU/g was reached after 40 days, both in presence and absence of antimicrobials. HP treatment delayed this initiation of spoilage to 59 days in absence of antimicrobials. However, microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 84 days in the HP treated products containing caprylic acid or Purasal®. HP treatment increased drip loss but had no or little effect on colour and sensorial evaluation by a taste panel. However, the antimicrobials had a negative influence on the flavour and aroma at the concentrations used. Industrial relevance: With a steadily increasing number of commercial applications being introduced on the market, HP pasteurization is growing out of its infancy. To further support this development, there is a need of integrated studies that translate fundamental scientific findings from simplified laboratory model systems to the complexity and scale of real food products. In this work, we determined HP processing conditions to control spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in a cooked ham model product, and subsequently conducted a large pilot scale experiment comprising a total of 432 individual packages of sliced cooked ham product, in which the microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial quality was evaluated during refrigerated storage after HP treatment. In addition, the usefulness of the natural preservatives caprylic acid and lactate-diacetate as an additional hurdle was also studied. This study is one of the most comprehensive available in the literature to document the shelf-life extension that can be achieved with HP treatment of cooked ham. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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