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Apostolou P.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd | Toloudi M.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd | Papasotiriou I.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd
Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2015

Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women. Great progress has been made in its treatment but relapse is common. One hypothesis to account for the high recurrence rates is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple malignant cell types. This study aimed to determine genes that are expressed in breast cancer and breast CSCs and to investigate their correlation with stemness. RNA was extracted from established breast cancer cell lines and from CSCs derived from five different breast cancer patients. DNA microarray analysis was performed and any upregulated genes were also studied in other cancer types, including colorectal and lung cancer. For genes that were expressed only in breast cancer, knockdown-based experiments were performed. Finally, the gene expression levels of stemness transcription factors were measured. The outcome of the analysis indicated a group of genes that were aberrantly expressed mainly in breast cancer cells with stemness properties. Knockdown experiments confirmed the impact of several of these on NANOG, OCT3/4, and SOX2 transcription factors. It seems that several genes that are not directly related with hormone metabolism and basic signal transduction pathways might have an important role in relapse and disease progression and, thus, can be targeted for new treatment approaches for breast cancer. © 2015 Apostolou et al.

Maria T.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd | Panagiotis A.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd | Marina C.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd | Eleni K.,Research Genetic Cancer Center Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a widely used targeted molecule in prostate patients. The present research, attempts to support the hypothesis that PSMA expression in prostate cancer stem cell-like (CSC) cell populations may be correlated with nanog and other transcription factors in different stages of prostate carcinomas. Materials and Methods: To provide more accurate evidence of the above, a population of prostate CSCs was isolated and analyzed using different protocols. The first method was based in the ability of CSCs to form spherical colonies in semi-suspension of a culture. A qPCRbased protocol and a flow cytometric analysis protocol were chosen to test the presence of stemness markers and PSMA in the selected populations. Results: The formation of micro-sphere in semi-suspension has been pointed out. In the other panels of the test, the linear correlation between PSMA and nanog in gene and protein level was shown. However, the statistical analysis including the coefficient of variationand standard deviation's values) has proved that there were differences in PSMA expression between cancer cells and CSCs. Conclusion: The previous analysis has pointed out that PSMA expression may be correlated with nanog's expression as well as with other confounders in a population of prostate CSCs.

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