Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SIS-2010-126.96.36.199 | Award Amount: 1.81M | Year: 2011
Funding agencies and decision-makers seek to support research with a high social impact. To identify this research, they need tools. Traditional evaluation of research has used peer review (before publication) and bibliometric indicators (afterwards). However, these tools evaluate research in terms of the values and needs of the research community, rather than those of society. Against this background, the strategic goal of the SISOB is develop novel tools making it possible to measure and predict the social impact of research. More specifically, SISOB will develop tools to measure and predict the social appropriation of research knowledge, modelled as the product of complex interactions within and between multiple, intersecting communities of scientists, journalists, industrial, decision makers and consumers. In this setting, the project will use computer-supported Social Network Analysis (SNA) to analyze how the topology of these networks can measure and predict the social impact of research. The specific goals of the project are thus to: (i) create a framework modelling the actors, relationships, communities and social networks involved in the social appropriation of research knowledge; (ii) design and implement tools and indicators making it possible to automatically collect, analyze and visually represent data describing these actors and their interactions; (iii) create data-driven models of specific actors, communities and networks relevant to three case studies; (iv) use the tools and indicators developed by the project to collect and analyze data relevant to the same studies; (v) use the results from these studies to validate the methods and tools developed; (vi) Implement, and release in open source, a platform for the capture and analysis of social network data relevant to measuring the social impact of research. The case studies are: mobility of researchers, knowledge sharing and peer reviewing processes.
Nevalainen H.,Research Frontiers |
Peterson R.,Research Frontiers
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014
Hosts used for the production of recombinant proteins are typically high-protein secreting mutant strains that have been selected for a specific purpose, such as efficient production of cellulose-degrading enzymes. Somewhat surprisingly, sequencing of the genomes of a series of mutant strains of the cellulolytic Trichoderma reesei, widely used as an expression host for recombinant gene products, has shed very little light on the nature of changes that boost high-level protein secretion. While it is generally agreed and shown that protein secretion in filamentous fungi occurs mainly through the hyphal tip, there is growing evidence that secretion of proteins also takes place in sub-apical regions. Attempts to increase correct folding and thereby the yields of heterologous proteins in fungal hosts by co-expression of cellular chaperones and foldases have resulted in variable success; underlying reasons have been explored mainly at the transcriptional level. The observed physiological changes in fungal strains experiencing increasing stress through protein overexpression under strong gene promoters also reflect the challenge the host organisms are experiencing. It is evident, that as with other eukaryotes, fungal endoplasmic reticulum is a highly dynamic structure. Considering the above, there is an emerging body of work exploring the use of weaker expression promoters to avoid undue stress. Filamentous fungi have been hailed as candidates for the production of pharmaceutically relevant proteins for therapeutic use. One of the biggest challenges in terms of fungally produced heterologous gene products is their mode of glycosylation; fungi lack the functionally important terminal sialylation of the glycans that occurs in mammalian cells. Finally, exploration of the metabolic pathways and fluxes together with the development of sophisticated fermentation protocols may result in new strategies to produce recombinant proteins in filamentous fungi. © 2014 Nevalainen and Peterson.
Thaysen-Andersen M.,Research Frontiers |
Packer N.H.,Research Frontiers
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2014
Site-specific structural characterization of glycoproteins is important for understanding the exact functional relevance of protein glycosylation. Resulting partly from the multiple layers of structural complexity of the attached glycans, the system-wide site-specific characterization of protein glycosylation, defined as glycoproteomics, is still far from trivial leaving the N- and O-linked glycoproteomes significantly under-defined. However, recent years have seen significant advances in glycoproteomics driven, in part, by the developments of dedicated workflows and efficient sample preparation, including glycopeptide enrichment and prefractionation. In addition, glycoproteomics has benefitted from the continuous performance enhancement and more intelligent use of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) instrumentation and a wider selection of specialized software tackling the unique challenges of glycoproteomics data. Together these advances promise more streamlined N- and O-linked glycoproteome analysis. Tangible examples include system-wide glycoproteomics studies detecting thousands of intact glycopeptides from hundreds of glycoproteins from diverse biological samples. With a strict focus on the system-wide site-specific analysis of protein N- and O-linked glycosylation, we review the recent advances in LC-MS/MS based glycoproteomics. The review opens with a more general discussion of experimental designs in glycoproteomics and sample preparation prior to LC-MS/MS based data acquisition. Although many challenges still remain, it becomes clear that glycoproteomics, one of the last frontiers in proteomics, is gradually maturing enabling a wider spectrum of researchers to access this new emerging research discipline. The next milestone in analytical glycobiology is being reached allowing the glycoscientist to address the functional importance of protein glycosylation in a system-wide yet protein-specific manner. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Redon S.,Research Frontiers |
Zemp I.,Research Frontiers |
Lingner J.,Research Frontiers
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013
Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA, which forms an integral part of telomeric heterochromatin. In vitro, naked TERRA molecules are efficient inhibitors of human telomerase, base-pairing via their 5′-UUAGGG-3′ repeats with the template sequence of telomerase RNA, in addition to contacting the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit. In vivo, however, TERRA-mediated inhibition of telomerase can be prevented by unknown mechanisms. Also, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) has been implicated in telomere length control. In vivo, TERRA is partially associated with hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA1 is also detected at telomeres. We demonstrate that on binding of TERRA, hnRNPA1 can alleviate the TERRA-mediated inhibition of telomerase. However, when in excess over TERRA, hnRNPA1 becomes itself an inhibitor of telomere extension, on binding of the telomeric DNA substrate. Yet, hnRNPA1 has no notable direct effects on the telomerase catalysis. Our in vitro results suggest that TERRA-mediated telomerase inhibition may be prevented by hnRNPA1 in vivo. Telomere extension by telomerase may require balanced levels of TERRA and hnRNPA1 at telomeres. Thus, TERRA and hnRNPA1 can function as a bimolecular regulator to turn telomerase and the telomere on and off. © 2013 The Author(s) 2013.
Research Frontiers | Date: 2016-03-18
A laminated glazing including a moisture-sensitive functional insert included within the glazing, the laminated glazing comprising a stack comprised of a plurality of glass or plastic plies, the plies being joined together by interlayers located between the plies, wherein a central area of the stack comprises at least one optically clear interlayer; the stack further including a moisture-sensitive functional insert; wherein an inner perimeter of the laminated glazing is formed with a frame comprised of a hydrophobic moisture-resistant material, the frame having a thickness substantially corresponding to a combined thickness of the interlayers within the glazing plus the insert. In addition, a method of reducing or eliminating exposure of a moisture-sensitive insert within a laminated glazing constructed as above is also described herein.
Research Frontiers | Date: 2013-02-07
A light valve film forming a light-modulating element of a light valve, the film comprised of a cross-linked polymer matrix with a plurality of droplets of a liquid light valve suspension distributed therein. The film has a phase ratio: % particle number value calculated by the formula: In one embodiment the light valve film has a relatively low visible transmittance in the unpowered Off state such that the film has a % T of <0.05 and a T of >42%. In another embodiment the light valve film has a relatively high visible transmittance in the On state such that the film has a % T of >70% and a T of >57%.
Research Frontiers | Date: 2014-04-29
A display device comprising a Suspended Particle Device film or other material for controlling the amount of illumination transmitted to an object from one or more light sources to protect the object from degradation by light is described. The display is capable of being dark when the object is not being viewed and being highly transmissive when the object is to be viewed. If desired, the display device may be controlled so as to provide a substantially constant amount of illumination when the object is viewed or intended to be viewed. A method of protecting an object using the display device is also provided.
Research Frontiers | Date: 2012-05-04
A suspended particle device (SPD) film or laminate thereof. The film includes substrates coated on their inner surface with a polythiophene-based conductive polymer serving as electrode means. The polymer may be applied in the form of an aqueous composition also comprising solvent(s) and binder(s). A preferred polymer is a polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDT) polymer. The polymer may be doped with polystyrene sulfonate. The polymer may be connected to a conductive material that extends beyond an outer boundary of the film to connect with a voltage source. Adhesive strength between the cured emulsion and the polymer is at least 1.46 N/25 mm. A further aspect constitutes a method for increasing adhesion between a cured suspended particle device emulsion and electrode means in a light valve film. The method comprises applying the polymer on an inner surface of the substrates constituting the film to serve as the electrode means.
Research Frontiers | Date: 2011-11-16
The invention concerns an arrangement for providing a driving voltage from a primary power source to one or more SPD loads. A backbone wiring which carries a low voltage derived from said primary power source and a conversion stage which converts said low voltage to an AC driving voltage and supplies said AC driving voltage to said one or more SPD loads. The invention concerns also a respective method of providing a driving voltage from a primary power source to one or more SPD loads.
Research Frontiers | Date: 2016-02-26
A control system controls one or more appliances or devices and includes a remote control unit, or other device, to provide instructions for controlling the devices and appliances based on user input and other information provided to the remote control unit or other device. The other information may be information provided by sensors in the remote control device itself, or elsewhere, or information obtained by the remote control device from outside the remote control device. Information may be provided from outside the remote control device via a communication system and/or a computer system.