Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation Clinical Research Center

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Brisbane, Australia

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PubMed | Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation Clinical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology | Year: 2011

Advanced colorectal polyps are identified based on size 10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, and/or villous histology. A diagnosis of tubular adenoma (TA) is recommended if villous change occupies <20% of the lesion, or tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) is recommended if there is 20% to 80% villosity. We hypothesized that even subtle villous changes (1% to 20%) would correlate with advanced molecular features. Two hundred sixty-nine colorectal adenomas were examined for KRAS and BRAF mutation and immunohistochemical staining of -catenin, O6-Methyl Guanine DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT), and p53. Adenomas were classified as TA1 (0% villosity, n=70), TA2 (1% to 20% villosity, n=81), or TVA (21% to 80% villosity, n=118). Clinical and molecular features were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. There was an incremental increase in KRAS mutation frequency with increasing villous compartment (17.9% TA1, 59.0% TA2, 78.4% TVA; P<0.001). MGMT was more frequently lost in TA2 (37.0%) than in TA1 (8.6%) (P<0.001) but did not differ from TVA (39.8%). p53 overexpression was more common in TA2 (38.3%) than in TA1 (10.0%) (P<0.001) but did not differ from TVA (32.2%). On multivariate analysis, TA2 adenomas were more likely to have a KRAS mutation [odds ratio (OR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-14.2], MGMT loss (OR 6.2, 95% CI, 2.4-16.0), or p53 overexpression (OR 5.6, 95% CI, 2.3-13.7) than TA1. We have identified a subgroup of TAs based on subtle villous changes. These adenomas are more likely to show molecular features that are characteristic of TVAs than TAs. These data support the concept that any villous change may indicate increased malignant potential and may be useful to consider when assigning surveillance guidelines.


PubMed | Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation Clinical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Digestive diseases and sciences | Year: 2011

DNA methylation varies throughout the normal colorectal mucosa and DNA methylation in normal appearing mucosa is associated with serrated and adenomatous neoplasia elsewhere within the colorectum.The purpose of this study was to measure luminal chemistry, rectal proliferation and mucosal DNA methylation and thus determine whether regional and pathological patterns of DNA methylation could be explained by luminal and epithelial factors.Twenty healthy subjects had normal rectal mucosal biopsies and a 24-h fecal collection. Rectal biopsies were analyzed for epithelial proliferation (Ki67 immunohistochemistry) and DNA methylation at 17 different markers, including type A markers (ESR1, GATA5, HIC1, HPP1, SFRP1), type C markers (MGMT, MLH1, CDKN2A, MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, IGF2, CACNA1G, NEUROG1, SOCS1, RUNX3), and LINE-1. Fecal analysis included short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), pH and ammonia. Mean type A and CIMP panel methylation Z-scores were calculated.Rectal proliferation was significantly correlated with methylation at ESR1 ( = 0.81, P = 0.003) and GATA5 ( = 0.78, P = 0.012). LINE-1 methylation was 71.7 vs. 74.1%, in patients with low and high fecal total SCFA concentration (defined by the median value), respectively (P = 0.0019). On multivariate linear regression type A methylation was independently associated with rectal proliferation (P = 0.001). LINE-1 methylation was directly associated with rectal proliferation (P = 0.038) and total fecal SCFA concentration (P = 0.002), and inversely associated with fecal NH(3) concentrations (P = 0.003).DNA methylation in normal rectal mucosa is associated with crypt proliferation and fecal SCFA concentration. These associations may help to explain regional differences in DNA methylation as well as providing a possible link between the colorectal lumen and carcinogenesis.


PubMed | Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital Research Foundation Clinical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncogene | Year: 2010

There are two major molecular pathways to sporadic colorectal cancer, the chromosomal instability (CIN) and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) pathways. This study recruited 166 patients undergoing colonoscopy. Biopsy samples were collected from the cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. DNA methylation was quantified at type A (ESR1, GATA5, HIC1, HPP1, SFRP1) and type C markers (MGMT, MLH1, CDKN2A, MINT2, MINT31, IGF2, CACNA1G, NEUROG1, SOCS1, RUNX3), and LINE-1. Type A genes are frequently methylated in normal and neoplastic tissues, proportional to tissue age. Type C methylation is more specific for neoplasia. The last five type C markers comprise a CIMP panel. The mean type A and CIMP-panel methylation Z-scores were calculated. In all, 88 patients had adenomatous lesions, 32 had proximal serrated polyps (PSPs) and 50 were normal. Most type A genes showed direct correlations between methylation and age (ESR1, rho=0.66, P<0.0001), with higher methylation distally (ESR1, P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, type A methylation was inversely associated with colorectal adenomas (odds ratio=0.23, P<0.001), the precursor to CIN cancers. CIMP-panel methylation was significantly associated with advanced PSPs (odds ratio=5.1, P=0.009), the precursor to CIMP cancers. DNA methylation in normal mucosa varied with age and region and was associated with pathway-specific pathology. In the future, the colorectal field could yield important information and potentially inform clinical practice.

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