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News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Frisky female fruit flies become more aggressive towards each other after sex. Female fruit flies start headbutting each other after mating, becoming significantly more aggressive and intolerant Oxford University research has revealed. Levels of aggression soar after sex, when a variety of proteins, which flow freely in semen, stimulate dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in females. Other changes include increased ovulation, rejecting male advances and loss of interest in sex. Increased post coital levels of aggression may have wider in direct implications on female competition. Studies in many species have shown an association between increased levels of aggression in females, egg laying and reproduction. Protecting and providing for offspring is often identified as the main motivation for this behaviour. The factors at play in the reproductive process, that trigger such dramatic behavioural changes, have until now, been less clearly understood. A team of researchers led by Dr Eleanor Bath and Dr Stuart Wigby of the Oxford University Department of Zoology, examined hundreds of fruit flies, assessing the impact of mating on female fruit fly behaviour, and to what degree it alters their levels of aggression. Fruit flies are also known as Drosophila melanogaster, a species of fly that is approximately one-eighth of an inch in length, with red eyes. Fruit flies are known for being drawn to ripe or rotten foods like fruits and vegetables. The research newly published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, proposed that aggression was potentially stimulated by two factors; either indirectly as a result of costly egg-production, or directly by coming into contact with the components contained in the male's ejaculate. The findings show that after mating, female fruit flies become evidently more aggressive towards each other when fighting over food, often head-butting and swatting at each other. Specifically, pairs of mated females fought significantly more than virgin pairs. Pairs with at least one newly mated female were also found to be more aggressive towards each other than pairs with two virgin females. Females are also know to experience a number of other dramatic changes after mating, including increasing their levels of egg production, increasing their feeding rates, and altering their sleeping patterns. Previous research has drawn links between these behavioural changes and proteins found in the seminal fluid, such as the sex-peptide, which is carried in the seminal fluid and binds to sperm. The team were able to determine that females needed to receive sperm to increase their aggression after mating, and sex-peptide was also involved in elevating female aggression. Copulation may also affect the social tolerance of females in general. Immediately after mating female fruit flies are known to be significantly less receptive to re-mating. Females were found to be equally aggressive towards one another, regardless of whether or not they were able to produce eggs, showing that reproduction was not a contributing factor in their obvious change of temperament. Dr Stuart Wigby, Research Fellow at Oxford University, said: 'A lot is known about male fruit fly behaviour and what affects their levels of aggression, but very little has been published about competition among females. Even taken on its own, our study is useful. If these behavioural changes occur in fruit flies, it is highly likely that they are happening in other insects.' Now that the relationship between mating and aggression in females is better understood, the team intend to conduct further analysis into the effects of the behavioural change, pinpointing the exact time that their intolerance intensifies, and how long the effects of the sex-peptide last. New research will also work to determine whether the effects carry positive or negative benefits to males and females, who the behavioural change benefits and if it is linked to spousal or offspring protection? Dr Eleanor Bath said: 'Knowing whether female aggression benefits females in the wild could help us to understand fruit fly population dynamics. Potentially having more aggressive females might result in females doing less well in the wild, meaning that we could potentially use female aggression as a behavioural tool to control pest insect populations.' Dr Stuart Wigby added: 'A lot of insect control programmes involve releasing sterile males into the wild. When these males mate with wild females, the females fail to produce viable offspring. It could be that mating with these sterile males also affects female aggression levels. Further research will help us to understand exactly how such affects could help or harm populations, and therefore whether or not they can have a wider use.' Embargoed until Monday 15 May at 1600pm (GMT) / 1100am US Eastern time The full paper entitled 'Sperm and sex peptide stimulate aggression in female Drosophila, by Eleanor Bath1* , Samuel Bowden1, Carla Peters1, Anjali Reddy1, Joseph A. Tobias1, 2, Evan Easton-Calabria3, Nathalie Seddon1, Stephen F. Goodwin4 and Stuart Wigby1 features in Nature Ecology & Evolution Two flies mating - Amy Hong Fruit fly face (close-up) - Amy Hong Back view of two flies mating - Amy Hong Image of females in the contest arena (with the paint and yeast patch highlighted) and video footage - Eleanor Bath For interviews or supporting images please contact: Lanisha Butterfield, Media Relations Manager on 01865 280531 or lanisha.butterfield@admin.ox.ac.uk The Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division (MPLS) is one of four academic divisions at the University of Oxford, representing the non-medical sciences. Oxford is one of the world's leading universities for science, and MPLS is at the forefront of scientific research across a wide range of disciplines. Research in the mathematical, physical and life sciences at Oxford was rated the best in the UK in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) assessment. MPLS received £133m in research income in 2014/15.


Female fruit flies start headbutting each other after mating, becoming significantly more aggressive and intolerant Oxford University research has revealed. Levels of aggression soar after sex, when a variety of proteins, which flow freely in semen, stimulate dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in females. Other changes include increased ovulation, rejecting male advances and loss of interest in sex. Increased post coital levels of aggression may have wider in direct implications on female competition. Studies in many species have shown an association between increased levels of aggression in females, egg laying and reproduction. Protecting and providing for offspring is often identified as the main motivation for this behaviour. The factors at play in the reproductive process, that trigger such dramatic behavioural changes, have until now, been less clearly understood. A team of researchers led by Dr Eleanor Bath and Dr Stuart Wigby of the Oxford University Department of Zoology, examined hundreds of fruit flies, assessing the impact of mating on female fruit fly behaviour, and to what degree it alters their levels of aggression. Fruit flies are also known as Drosophila melanogaster, a species of fly that is approximately one-eighth of an inch in length, with red eyes. Fruit flies are known for being drawn to ripe or rotten foods like fruits and vegetables. The research newly published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, proposed that aggression was potentially stimulated by two factors; either indirectly as a result of costly egg-production, or directly by coming into contact with the components contained in the male's ejaculate. The findings show that after mating, female fruit flies become evidently more aggressive towards each other when fighting over food, often head-butting and swatting at each other. Specifically, pairs of mated females fought significantly more than virgin pairs. Pairs with at least one newly mated female were also found to be more aggressive towards each other than pairs with two virgin females. Females are also know to experience a number of other dramatic changes after mating, including increasing their levels of egg production, increasing their feeding rates, and altering their sleeping patterns. Previous research has drawn links between these behavioural changes and proteins found in the seminal fluid, such as the sex-peptide, which is carried in the seminal fluid and binds to sperm. The team were able to determine that females needed to receive sperm to increase their aggression after mating, and sex-peptide was also involved in elevating female aggression. Copulation may also affect the social tolerance of females in general. Immediately after mating female fruit flies are known to be significantly less receptive to re-mating. Females were found to be equally aggressive towards one another, regardless of whether or not they were able to produce eggs, showing that reproduction was not a contributing factor in their obvious change of temperament. Dr Stuart Wigby, Research Fellow at Oxford University, said: 'A lot is known about male fruit fly behaviour and what affects their levels of aggression, but very little has been published about competition among females. Even taken on its own, our study is useful. If these behavioural changes occur in fruit flies, it is highly likely that they are happening in other insects.' Now that the relationship between mating and aggression in females is better understood, the team intend to conduct further analysis into the effects of the behavioural change, pinpointing the exact time that their intolerance intensifies, and how long the effects of the sex-peptide last. New research will also work to determine whether the effects carry positive or negative benefits to males and females, who the behavioural change benefits and if it is linked to spousal or offspring protection? Dr Eleanor Bath said: 'Knowing whether female aggression benefits females in the wild could help us to understand fruit fly population dynamics. Potentially having more aggressive females might result in females doing less well in the wild, meaning that we could potentially use female aggression as a behavioural tool to control pest insect populations.' Dr Stuart Wigby added: 'A lot of insect control programmes involve releasing sterile males into the wild. When these males mate with wild females, the females fail to produce viable offspring. It could be that mating with these sterile males also affects female aggression levels. Further research will help us to understand exactly how such affects could help or harm populations, and therefore whether or not they can have a wider use.' More information: Sperm and sex peptide stimulate aggression in female Drosophila, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0154


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Frisky female fruit flies become more aggressive towards each other after sex. Female fruit flies start headbutting each other after mating, becoming significantly more aggressive and intolerant Oxford University research has revealed. Levels of aggression soar after sex, when a variety of proteins, which flow freely in semen, stimulate dramatic behavioural and physiological changes in females. Other changes include increased ovulation, rejecting male advances and loss of interest in sex. Increased post coital levels of aggression may have wider in direct implications on female competition. Studies in many species have shown an association between increased levels of aggression in females, egg laying and reproduction. Protecting and providing for offspring is often identified as the main motivation for this behaviour. The factors at play in the reproductive process, that trigger such dramatic behavioural changes, have until now, been less clearly understood. A team of researchers led by Dr Eleanor Bath and Dr Stuart Wigby of the Oxford University Department of Zoology, examined hundreds of fruit flies, assessing the impact of mating on female fruit fly behaviour, and to what degree it alters their levels of aggression. Fruit flies are also known as Drosophila melanogaster, a species of fly that is approximately one-eighth of an inch in length, with red eyes. Fruit flies are known for being drawn to ripe or rotten foods like fruits and vegetables. The research newly published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, proposed that aggression was potentially stimulated by two factors; either indirectly as a result of costly egg-production, or directly by coming into contact with the components contained in the male's ejaculate. The findings show that after mating, female fruit flies become evidently more aggressive towards each other when fighting over food, often head-butting and swatting at each other. Specifically, pairs of mated females fought significantly more than virgin pairs. Pairs with at least one newly mated female were also found to be more aggressive towards each other than pairs with two virgin females. Females are also know to experience a number of other dramatic changes after mating, including increasing their levels of egg production, increasing their feeding rates, and altering their sleeping patterns. Previous research has drawn links between these behavioural changes and proteins found in the seminal fluid, such as the sex-peptide, which is carried in the seminal fluid and binds to sperm. The team were able to determine that females needed to receive sperm to increase their aggression after mating, and sex-peptide was also involved in elevating female aggression. Copulation may also affect the social tolerance of females in general. Immediately after mating female fruit flies are known to be significantly less receptive to re-mating. Females were found to be equally aggressive towards one another, regardless of whether or not they were able to produce eggs, showing that reproduction was not a contributing factor in their obvious change of temperament. Dr Stuart Wigby, Research Fellow at Oxford University, said: 'A lot is known about male fruit fly behaviour and what affects their levels of aggression, but very little has been published about competition among females. Even taken on its own, our study is useful. If these behavioural changes occur in fruit flies, it is highly likely that they are happening in other insects.' Now that the relationship between mating and aggression in females is better understood, the team intend to conduct further analysis into the effects of the behavioural change, pinpointing the exact time that their intolerance intensifies, and how long the effects of the sex-peptide last. New research will also work to determine whether the effects carry positive or negative benefits to males and females, who the behavioural change benefits and if it is linked to spousal or offspring protection? Dr Eleanor Bath said: 'Knowing whether female aggression benefits females in the wild could help us to understand fruit fly population dynamics. Potentially having more aggressive females might result in females doing less well in the wild, meaning that we could potentially use female aggression as a behavioural tool to control pest insect populations.' Dr Stuart Wigby added: 'A lot of insect control programmes involve releasing sterile males into the wild. When these males mate with wild females, the females fail to produce viable offspring. It could be that mating with these sterile males also affects female aggression levels. Further research will help us to understand exactly how such affects could help or harm populations, and therefore whether or not they can have a wider use.'


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

User fees affect drug pricing and competition at every level. And make no mistake user fees are set to rise. Flags are flying from the FDA, where a new chief, Dr. Scott Gottlieb, is soon taking charge, to the White House, where many major decisions remain on hold, to Congress where as usual anything can happen. How much will user fees rise? How will drug policies be affected? And what will it all mean to business? Drugmakers need clarity. Not when it’s too late to protect their interests ... but now. Mark the calendar for Tuesday, June 13, when two well-placed insiders share insights, make forecasts, and help drugmakers deal with a fast-changing Washington landscape. Attendees will gain understanding of: The guides are Alex Brill, policy director and chief economist to the House Committee on Ways and Means Committee during the Bush II years and former FDAer Nancy Bradish Myers Esq., a Washington lawyer with deep expertise in health care law, regulation, policy development, government relations and strategic positioning. The Washington landscape is shifting. Discover what drugmakers need to know to stay competitive. Meet the Presenters: Alex Brill, CEO, Matrix Global Advisors. Prior to entering the private sector, Mr. Brill served as policy director and chief economist to the House Committee on Ways and Means Committee during the Bush II years, helping develop policy on taxes, health, pension, and trade. Previously he served at the White House Council of Economic Advisers. He is a Research Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. Nancy Bradish Myers, President, Catalyst Healthcare Consulting Inc., is a Washington-based attorney with deep expertise in health care law, regulation, policy development, government relations and strategic positioning. She previously held senior roles at the FDA, on Capitol Hill, at several trade associations and with investors. About FDAnews: FDAnews is the premier provider of domestic and international regulatory, legislative, and business news and information for executives in industries regulated by the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency. Pharmaceutical and medical device professionals rely on FDAnews' print and electronic newsletters, books and conferences to stay in compliance with international standards and the FDA's complex and ever-changing regulations.


The School of Chinese Medicine (SCM) of Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) is conducting a space life science study aboard China's first cargo spacecraft, Tianzhou-1, which was launched last month. HKBU is the only institution of higher education outside the Mainland to conduct scientific research aboard the Tianzhou 1. The HKBU team is studying effects of the CKIP-1 gene on bone formation in the microgravity condition on board the Tianzhou 1 in space. In microgravity, bone loss occurs several times faster than on Earth, posing a serious health threat to astronauts, who therefore cannot stay in space for long periods of time. The HKBU team hopes that the study will lead to the formulation of a set of protective measures and treatments as well as the discovery of new drugs to prevent or treat bone loss resulting from space travel. It could also serve as reference for the development of a health care and therapeutics for an ageing population. The HKBU team is led by Professor Lyu Aiping, HKBU Dean of Chinese Medicine, and Director of the Law Sau Fai Institute for Advancing Translational Medicine in Bone & Joint Diseases (TMBJ), and Professor Zhang Ge, Associate Director of TMBJ, Associate Director of SCM's Teaching and Research Division, and Director of the Technology Development Division, with Post-doctoral Research Fellow Dr Liang Chao and Senior Research Assistant Miss Wang Luyao as team members. Professor Lyu Aiping said this is another important contribution made by HKBU to the Mainland's major scientific research initiatives after its participation in the first deep-sea expedition aboard the manned submersible Jiaolong in 2013. This new contribution not only recognises HKBU's and Hong Kong's research strength in related areas, but is also a great source of encouragement to members of the Chinese medicine and higher education sectors. Professor Zhang Ge says the quality of Bone & Joint Research at TMBJ has reached the top international level. TMBJ members have in recent years published a number of research papers in prestigious academic journals such as Nature Communications and Nature Medicine. He hopes their project will bring a breakthrough in this related area of research. The CKIP-1 gene in osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) could specifically interact with SMURF1 genes in the cells to inhibit cell activity, thereby slowing down or hindering bone formation. The research team led by Professor Lyu and Professor Zhang further found that the aberrant elevated CKIP-1 expression in osteoblast could inhibit bone formation and contribute to the reduction in bone formation during ageing as well as in the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Nevertheless, the function of CKIP-1 in the process of bone formation reduction caused by microgravity in space is still not yet known. The team has placed osteoblast in which CKIP-1 genes were silenced on board the Tianzhou 1 for further research, and is monitoring the effects of CKIP-1 on osteoblast. To prepare for the launch of Tianzhou 1, Dr Liang Chao and Miss Wang Luyao of the HKBU team participated in a number of life science experiments at ground level, organised by the National Space Science and Application Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. These experiments included simulated vibration tests, bio-compatibility tests and simulated microgravity experiments as well as systematic matching experiments and rehearsals. Tianzhou 1 was launched at the Wenchang Space Launch Centre in Hainan. Entitled "Research on the impact of microgravity on the proliferation and differentiation of cells", the space life science study on Tianzhou 1 is led by Northwestern Polytechnical University in collaboration with HKBU, Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, and the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The project consists of eight sub-projects of which HKBU is responsible for sub-project CKIP 1. Media enquiries: Connie Ko of the School of Chinese Medicine (+852 3411 2132) or M S Fung of the Communication and Public Relations Office (+852 3411 5261 or +852 7472 2122).


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Scientists at the University of Sheffield have developed a new technique to examine human sperm without killing them -- helping to improve the diagnosis of fertility problems. The Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy technique, uses powerful magnets and works like radar by firing pulses of energy at the sperm sample inside a purpose built scanner and then listening to the echoed signal by the molecules in response. This could help to distinguish between populations of good or poor sperm. Unlike other more destructive examination methods, the low energy pulses do not damage sperm, meaning they could potentially go on to be used in IVF treatment. This is similar to a technique that doctors use to capture images of cells and tissues inside the body. The novel approach was pioneered by physicists from the University of Sheffield's Academic Unit of Radiology working together with fertility experts from the University's Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine in the interdisciplinary spermNMR project. Professor Martyn Paley, from the University's Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, said: "The technique of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has been previously used to examine the molecular composition of many cells and tissues in other diseases such as cancer, but it has never previously been used to examine live sperm. As such, these results are a world first." During the study, scientists examined fresh sperm samples from healthy volunteers and patients for just over an hour. From the data gathered scientists were able to build up a profile of the molecules present in the sperm and how they differ between samples. Professor Allan Pacey, fertility expert from the University of Sheffield, who was part of the spermNMR study team, said: "Most of the advanced techniques we have available to examine the molecules in sperm end up destroying them in the process by either adding stains or by breaking open their membranes to look at the contents. "To potentially have a technique which can examine the molecular structure of sperm without damaging them is really exciting." One of the technical challenges that the team faced was how to detect the molecules that were present in sperm rather than those present in semen, the fluid in which sperm are ejaculated. To do this, the team examined a number of 'sperm washing' techniques that are currently used to prepare sperm for IVF. They found that by spinning the samples very fast in a centrifuge several times they were able to reduce the background noise from molecules in semen to a point where they could reliably detect the ones from sperm. Research Associate Dr Sarah Calvert from the spermNMR team, said: "Washing the sperm in a centrifuge is a critical step for this technique to work as any contamination from seminal plasma can also be detected by the scanner. But by adding an extra spin cycle to the techiques that are commonly used in IVF we were able to minimize that contamination." The results of the study show that a number of molecules such as Choline (vitamin-like essential nutrient) and Glycerophosphocholine (a natural choline compound found in the brain), Lipids (common components of sperm cell membranes) and Lactate (an end product of cellular energy usage) were significantly different between samples of sperm separated into 'good' and 'poor' populations. Research Fellow Dr Steven Reynolds explained: "The fact we can detect differences in molecular composition between samples of 'good' and 'poor' sperm is really significant because it opens up the opportunity for us to develop a novel biomarker to help with diagnosis. "Or it might one day allow us to design specific therapies for men with poor sperm that might help give them a boost."


News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists at the University of Sheffield have developed a new technique to examine human sperm without killing them -- helping to improve the diagnosis of fertility problems. The Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy technique, uses powerful magnets and works like radar by firing pulses of energy at the sperm sample inside a purpose built scanner and then listening to the echoed signal by the molecules in response. This could help to distinguish between populations of good or poor sperm. Unlike other more destructive examination methods, the low energy pulses do not damage sperm, meaning they could potentially go on to be used in IVF treatment. This is similar to a technique that doctors use to capture images of cells and tissues inside the body. The novel approach was pioneered by physicists from the University of Sheffield's Academic Unit of Radiology working together with fertility experts from the University's Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine in the interdisciplinary spermNMR project. Professor Martyn Paley, from the University's Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, said: "The technique of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has been previously used to examine the molecular composition of many cells and tissues in other diseases such as cancer, but it has never previously been used to examine live sperm. As such, these results are a world first." During the study, scientists examined fresh sperm samples from healthy volunteers and patients for just over an hour. From the data gathered scientists were able to build up a profile of the molecules present in the sperm and how they differ between samples. Professor Allan Pacey, fertility expert from the University of Sheffield, who was part of the spermNMR study team, said: "Most of the advanced techniques we have available to examine the molecules in sperm end up destroying them in the process by either adding stains or by breaking open their membranes to look at the contents. "To potentially have a technique which can examine the molecular structure of sperm without damaging them is really exciting." One of the technical challenges that the team faced was how to detect the molecules that were present in sperm rather than those present in semen, the fluid in which sperm are ejaculated. To do this, the team examined a number of 'sperm washing' techniques that are currently used to prepare sperm for IVF. They found that by spinning the samples very fast in a centrifuge several times they were able to reduce the background noise from molecules in semen to a point where they could reliably detect the ones from sperm. Research Associate Dr Sarah Calvert from the spermNMR team, said: "Washing the sperm in a centrifuge is a critical step for this technique to work as any contamination from seminal plasma can also be detected by the scanner. But by adding an extra spin cycle to the techiques that are commonly used in IVF we were able to minimize that contamination." The results of the study show that a number of molecules such as Choline (vitamin-like essential nutrient) and Glycerophosphocholine (a natural choline compound found in the brain), Lipids (common components of sperm cell membranes) and Lactate (an end product of cellular energy usage) were significantly different between samples of sperm separated into 'good' and 'poor' populations. Research Fellow Dr Steven Reynolds explained: "The fact we can detect differences in molecular composition between samples of 'good' and 'poor' sperm is really significant because it opens up the opportunity for us to develop a novel biomarker to help with diagnosis. "Or it might one day allow us to design specific therapies for men with poor sperm that might help give them a boost." The study is published today (24 May 2017) in the journal Molecular Human Reproduction and was funded by an Medical Research Council grant "Spectroscopic Probes Of Energy Regulation And Metabolism (SPERM): Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Of Metabolic Pathways To Identify Potential Biomarkers Of Male Fertility" (Grant Ref MR/M010473/1) awarded to Professors Allan Pacey and Martyn Paley. For further information please contact: Amy Pullan, Media Relations Officer, University of Sheffield, 0114 222 9859, a.l.pullan@sheffield.ac.uk The paper, '1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of live human sperm' by Reynolds et al, will be published in the journal Molecular Human Reproduction, at 00:01 (BST) on 24 May 2017 More details about the project can be found on the study website at: http://spermnmr. The twitter account for the project is: @SpermNMR With almost 27,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries, learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the University of Sheffield is one of the world's leading universities. A member of the UK's prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions, Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide range of disciplines. Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in. Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2017 and was voted number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education in 2014. In the last decade it has won four Queen's Anniversary Prizes in recognition of the outstanding contribution to the United Kingdom's intellectual, economic, cultural and social life. Sheffield has six Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields. Global research partners and clients include Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens and Airbus, as well as many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable foundations. For further information, please visit http://www. To read other news releases about the University of Sheffield, visit http://www.


The astronomers from the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, led by the UK science lead for the Juno mission, have led three papers and contributed to four papers in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, that support the first in-depth science results from Juno published in the journal Science. Juno made its first scientific close-up, known as a 'perijove', on 27 August last year. Lasting a few hours, the spacecraft flies from the north pole to the south pole, dipping within 4000 km of the equatorial clouds and beneath Jupiter's most intense and damaging radiation belts. The Juno team organized a campaign with astronomers using Earth- and space-based telescopes around the globe to collaborate with the Juno science team. These collaborations provide the Juno science team with a 'forecast' of the gas giant's intense weather systems and powerful aurorae to compare with Juno close observations. The results from Juno have proven Jupiter to be an even more extreme and surprising environment than the scientists predicted. A model of the workings of Jupiter's polar aurorae (northern lights) was detailed by Professor Stan Cowley, Professor of Solar Planetary Physics at University of Leicester and the UK science lead for Juno, with colleagues at the University of Leicester. This model, based upon spacecraft flybys and Galileo orbiter observations, details the electric currents which couple the polar upper atmosphere to the planetary field and plasma at large distances, and offers a comparison of Juno's early data with a prediction of what Juno would observe on its first 'perijove'. Professor Cowley, who is a co-author on the Science paper, said: "Our new paper in the Juno special issue of Geophysical Research Letters makes detailed predictions about what should be seen, and when, on Juno's first perijove pass, and we plan to continue this work for subsequent passes as well. Our prediction is being published alongside the early Juno data. We look forward to future release of the fully calibrated Juno data that will allow these predictions to be tested in detail." Dr Jonathan Nichols, Reader in Planetary Auroras at University of Leicester, was also involved in monitoring Jupiter's polar aurorae during Juno's approach to Jupiter. He led on observations of the impact of the solar wind on the auroras using the Hubble Space Telescope, for the first time confirming the impact of the solar wind on auroras on Jupiter - and capturing the most powerful auroras observed by Hubble to date. Dr Nichols said: "Jupiter threw an auroral firework party to celebrate Juno's arrival. We have been able to show that intense pulses of aurora were triggered during intervals when the solar wind was buffeting the giant magnetosphere. This tells us that even Jupiter's mighty magnetosphere is, like those of Earth and Saturn, not immune to the vagaries of the Sun and the solar wind." Dr Leigh Fletcher, Royal Society Research Fellow at University of Leicester, has led Earth-based observations of Jupiter's atmospheric weather systems which take the form of dark and light banding of colour as seen from Earth. Closer inspection using the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) reveals that this banding is constantly changing over long spans of time. Juno is starting to reveal the deep processes driving these changes from below the clouds. Dr Fletcher said: "Juno's data shows that Jupiter exhibits banding all the way down to ~350km, much deeper than what we've generally thought of as Jupiter's 'weather layer' in the upper few tens of kilometres. Deep sounding down through the clouds for the first time has revealed an enormous circulation pattern with a column of rising equatorial gas, suggesting that those cloud-top colours really are just the tip of the iceberg. This is much deeper than we can see with Earth- or space-based telescopes. "The presence of the Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter is providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to combine remote observations with in situ studies of the jovian environment, a chance that won't come again for at least a decade. Already, Juno's discoveries are forcing us to re-evaluate some long-standing ideas about how this giant planet system works." Juno launched on 5 Aug 2011, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and arrived in orbit around Jupiter on 4 July 2016. In its current exploration mission, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops, as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno probes beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studies its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. The University of Leicester is home to the UK science lead for the Juno mission, NASA's programme to study our solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Planetary scientists and astronomers from the Department of Physics and Astronomy are studying the gas giant's magnetosphere, dynamic atmosphere and its beautiful polar auroras. Explore further: Juno spacecraft set for fifth Jupiter flyby More information: L. N. Fletcher, Cycles of Activity in the Jovian Atmosphere, Geophysical Research Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073806 Cowley, S.W.H., G. Provan, E.J. Bunce, and J.D. Nichols, Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Jupiter: Expectations for Juno Perijove 1 from a steady-state axisymmetric physical model, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073129, 2017. Nichols, J.D., S.V. Badman, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, E.J. Bunce, J.T. Clarke, J.E.P. Connerney, S.W.H. Cowley, R.W. Ebert, M. Fujimoto, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, T. Kimura, W.S. Kurth, B.H. Mauk, G. Murakami, D.J. McComas, G.S. Orton, A. Radioti, T.S. Stallard, C. Tao, P.W. Valek, R.J. Wilson, A. Yamazaki, and I. Yoshikawa, Response of Jupiter's auroras to conditions in the interplanetary medium as measured by the Hubble Space Telescope and Juno, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073029,2017. Moore, L., O'Donoghue, J., Melin, H., Stallard, T., Tao, C., Zieger, B., Clarke, J., Vogt, M. F., Bhakyapaibul, T., Opher, M., Tóth, G., Connerney, J. E. P., Levin, S., and Bolton, S., Variability of Jupiter's IR H3+ aurorae during Juno approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press T. Kimura, J. D. Nichols, R. L. Gray, C. Tao, G. Murakami, A. Yamazaki, S. V. Badman, F. Tsuchiya, K. Yoshioka, H. Kita, D. Grodent, G. Clark, I. Yoshikawa, and M. Fujimoto, Transient brightening of Jupiter's aurora observed by the Hisaki satellite and Hubble Space Telescope during approach phase of the Juno spacecraft, 10.1002/2017GL072912 Connerney, J.E.P., A. Adriani, F. Allegrini, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, S.W.H. Cowley, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, G. Hospodarsky, J. Jorgensen, W. Kurth, S.M. Levin, B. Mauk, D.J. McComas, A. Mura, C. Paranicas, E.J. Smith, R.M. Thorne, P. Valek, and J. Waite, Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits, Science, in press, 2017.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New observations about the extreme conditions of Jupiter's weather and magnetic fields by University of Leicester astronomers have contributed to the revelations and insights coming from the first close passes of Jupiter by NASA's Juno mission, announced today (25 May). The astronomers from the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, led by the UK science lead for the Juno mission, have led three papers and contributed to four papers in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, that support the first in-depth science results from Juno published in the journal Science. Juno made its first scientific close-up, known as a 'perijove', on 27 August last year. Lasting a few hours, the spacecraft flies from the north pole to the south pole, dipping within 4000 km of the equatorial clouds and beneath Jupiter's most intense and damaging radiation belts. The Juno team organized a campaign with astronomers using Earth- and space-based telescopes around the globe to collaborate with the Juno science team. These collaborations provide the Juno science team with a 'forecast' of the gas giant's intense weather systems and powerful aurorae to compare with Juno close observations. The results from Juno have proven Jupiter to be an even more extreme and surprising environment than the scientists predicted. A model of the workings of Jupiter's polar aurorae (northern lights) was detailed by Professor Stan Cowley, Professor of Solar Planetary Physics at University of Leicester and the UK science lead for Juno, with colleagues at the University of Leicester. This model, based upon spacecraft flybys and Galileo orbiter observations, details the electric currents which couple the polar upper atmosphere to the planetary field and plasma at large distances, and offers a comparison of Juno's early data with a prediction of what Juno would observe on its first 'perijove'. Professor Cowley, who is a co-author on the Science paper, said: "Our new paper in the Juno special issue of Geophysical Research Letters makes detailed predictions about what should be seen, and when, on Juno's first perijove pass, and we plan to continue this work for subsequent passes as well. Our prediction is being published alongside the early Juno data. We look forward to future release of the fully calibrated Juno data that will allow these predictions to be tested in detail." Dr Jonathan Nichols, Reader in Planetary Auroras at University of Leicester, was also involved in monitoring Jupiter's polar aurorae during Juno's approach to Jupiter. He led on observations of the impact of the solar wind on the auroras using the Hubble Space Telescope, for the first time confirming the impact of the solar wind on auroras on Jupiter - and capturing the most powerful auroras observed by Hubble to date. Dr Nichols said: "Jupiter threw an auroral firework party to celebrate Juno's arrival. We have been able to show that intense pulses of aurora were triggered during intervals when the solar wind was buffeting the giant magnetosphere. This tells us that even Jupiter's mighty magnetosphere is, like those of Earth and Saturn, not immune to the vagaries of the Sun and the solar wind." Dr Leigh Fletcher, Royal Society Research Fellow at University of Leicester, has led Earth-based observations of Jupiter's atmospheric weather systems which take the form of dark and light banding of colour as seen from Earth. Closer inspection using the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) reveals that this banding is constantly changing over long spans of time. Juno is starting to reveal the deep processes driving these changes from below the clouds. Dr Fletcher said: "Juno's data shows that Jupiter exhibits banding all the way down to ~350km, much deeper than what we've generally thought of as Jupiter's 'weather layer' in the upper few tens of kilometres. Deep sounding down through the clouds for the first time has revealed an enormous circulation pattern with a column of rising equatorial gas, suggesting that those cloud-top colours really are just the tip of the iceberg. This is much deeper than we can see with Earth- or space-based telescopes. "The presence of the Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter is providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to combine remote observations with in situ studies of the jovian environment, a chance that won't come again for at least a decade. Already, Juno's discoveries are forcing us to re-evaluate some long-standing ideas about how this giant planet system works." Juno launched on 5 Aug 2011, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and arrived in orbit around Jupiter on 4 July 2016. In its current exploration mission, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops, as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno probes beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studies its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. The University of Leicester is home to the UK science lead for the Juno mission, NASA's programme to study our solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Planetary scientists and astronomers from the Department of Physics and Astronomy are studying the gas giant's magnetosphere, dynamic atmosphere and its beautiful polar auroras. Dr Jonathan Nichols (unavailable on Thursday 25 May) Reader in Planetary Auroras jdn4@le.ac.uk Cowley, S.W.H., G. Provan, E.J. Bunce, and J.D. Nichols, Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Jupiter: Expectations for Juno Perijove 1 from a steady-state axisymmetric physical model, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073129, 2017. Nichols, J.D., S.V. Badman, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, E.J. Bunce, J.T. Clarke, J.E.P. Connerney, S.W.H. Cowley, R.W. Ebert, M. Fujimoto, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, T. Kimura, W.S. Kurth, B.H. Mauk, G. Murakami, D.J. McComas, G.S. Orton, A. Radioti, T.S. Stallard, C. Tao, P.W. Valek, R.J. Wilson, A. Yamazaki, and I. Yoshikawa, Response of Jupiter's auroras to conditions in the interplanetary medium as measured by the Hubble Space Telescope and Juno, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073029,2017. L.N. Fletcher, (2017), Cycles of Activity in the Jovian Atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, in press. Moore, L., O'Donoghue, J., Melin, H., Stallard, T., Tao, C., Zieger, B., Clarke, J., Vogt, M. F., Bhakyapaibul, T., Opher, M., Tóth, G., Connerney, J. E. P., Levin, S., and Bolton, S., Variability of Jupiter's IR H3+ aurorae during Juno approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press T. Kimura, J. D. Nichols, R. L. Gray, C. Tao, G. Murakami, A. Yamazaki, S. V. Badman, F. Tsuchiya, K. Yoshioka, H. Kita, D. Grodent, G. Clark, I. Yoshikawa, and M. Fujimoto, Transient brightening of Jupiter's aurora observed by the Hisaki satellite and Hubble Space Telescope during approach phase of the Juno spacecraft, 10.1002/2017GL072912 Connerney, J.E.P., A. Adriani, F. Allegrini, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, S.W.H. Cowley, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, G. Hospodarsky, J. Jorgensen, W. Kurth, S.M. Levin, B. Mauk, D.J. McComas, A. Mura, C. Paranicas, E.J. Smith, R.M. Thorne, P. Valek, and J. Waite, Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits, Science, in press, 2017.


We contribute to existing knowledge translation (KT) literature by developing the notion of 'enactment' and illustrate this through an interpretative, comparative case-study analysis of three Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) initiatives. We argue for a focus on the way in which the CLAHRC model has been 'enacted' as central to the different KT challenges and capabilities encountered. A comparative, mixed method study created a typology of enactments (Classical, Home-grown and Imported) using qualitative analysis and social network analysis. We identify systematic differences in the enactment of the CLAHRC model. The sources of these different enactments are subsequently related to variation in formative interpretations and leadership styles, the implementation of different governance structures, and the relative epistemic differences between the professional groups involved. Enactment concerns the creative agency of individuals and groups in constituting a particular context for their work through their local interpretation of a particular KT model. Our theory of enactment goes beyond highlighting variation between CLAHRCs, to explore the mechanisms that influence the way a particular model is interpreted and acted upon. We thus encourage less focus on conceptual models and more on the formative role played by leaders of KT initiatives.

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