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Sofia, Bulgaria
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Plants need nitrogen to grow, and intensive agriculture requires the input of nitrogen compounds. However, classical, nitrate-based fertilization is responsible for considerable environmental problems, such as the contamination of surface and underground water due to nitrate leaching, and the emission of greenhouse gases, owing to the effect of the micro-organisms in the soil that use the nitrate and produce nitrous oxide, a significant greenhouse gas. In order to alleviate these problems, "an attempt is being made to encourage a different type of fertilizer treatment, and one of them is the use of ammonia together with nitrification inhibitors. The inhibitors cause this ammonia to be in the soil for longer and this helps to mitigate nitrate leaching and also nitrous oxide emissions," explained Daniel Marino, researcher in the UPV/EHU's NUMAPS research group, which has conducted this study in collaboration with Dr Pedro Aparicio-Tejo of the UPN/NUP-Public University of Navarre. Yet this source of nitrogen has a special feature: "it can be toxic for plants and lead to reduced growth than when nitrate is used. In our group we are studying the tolerance and sensitivity of different plants to this source of nitrogen". Seeking to go further into this subject, they went on to study the proteome of a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. "Without focussing on any protein in particular, we decided to see what differences were displayed by this plant within the synthesised proteins as a whole when ammonium or nitric fertilizers are applied," said Daniel Marino. The same results in edible plants When studying the type and quantity of proteins accumulated in the plants with each type of nutrition, "what seemed most interesting to us is that there were some proteins related to the metabolism of glucosinolates which accumulate in a greater quantity in plants receiving an ammonium input," stressed the researcher. In general, glucosinolates have two properties: they are natural insecticides and one of them in particular, glucoraphanin, has anticarcinogenic properties. Given that the experiments had been conducted using the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant widely used in research but of no commercial interest, they decided to repeat the experiment, "but this time with broccoli plants. Although we did not manage to study the glucosinolate content in the part of the broccoli of greatest food interest, which is the flower, we saw that the leaves of the young plants accumulated a greater quantity of glucoraphanin when we added the source of nitrogen by means of ammonium than when we did so using nitrate," explained Marino. In view of these results, the research group is continuing to work on this aspect and they have even been in contact with several companies that could be interested in them. So in order to pursue their possible commercial application "we carried out field experiments where the system is much more complex, due, among other things, to the micro-organisms in the soil that also use ammonium as a source of nitrogen. So in the field experiments we will also be interested in analysing the glucosinolate content in the broccoli inflorescence, the part of the plant that is consumed most. On the other hand, from a more fundamental point of view, we are also interested in knowing the effect that the glucosinolates could have on the ammonium tolerance of the plant itself," he explained. The biologist Daniel Marino-Bilbao, an Ikerbasque Research Fellow at the UPV/EHU, is a member of the research group NUMAPS (Nutrition Management in Plant and Soil), led by Carmen González-Murua, of the department of Plant Biology and Ecology in the UPV/EHU's Faculty of Science and Technology. Marino D, Ariz I, Lasa B, Santamaría E, Fernández-Irigoyen J, González-Murua C, Aparicio-Tejo P (2016) Quantitative proteomics reveals the importance of nitrogen source to control glucosinolate metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea. Journal of Experimental Botany 67: 3313-3323.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The National Science Foundation (NSF) today recognized Baratunde "Bara" A. Cola of the Georgia Institute of Technology and John V. Pardon of Princeton University with the nation's highest honor for early career scientists and engineers, the Alan T. Waterman Award. This marks only the second time in the award's 42-year history that NSF selected two recipients in the same year. Bestowed annually, the Waterman Award recognizes outstanding researchers age 35 and under in NSF-supported fields of science and engineering. In addition to a medal, awardees each receive a $1 million, five-year grant for research in their chosen field of study. "We are seeing the significant impact of their research very early in the careers of these awardees," said NSF Director France Córdova. "That is the most exciting aspect of the Waterman Award, which recognizes early career achievement. They have creatively tackled longstanding scientific challenges, and we look forward to what they will do next." Cola pioneered new engineering methods and materials to control light and heat in electronics at the nanoscale. He serves as an associate professor at Georgia Tech's George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering. In 2015, Cola and his team were the first to overcome more than 40 years of research challenges to create a device called an optical rectenna, which turns light into direct current more efficiently than today's technology. The device could lead to highly efficient solar cells with the potential to power new generations of cell phones, laptops, satellites and drones. The technology uses carbon nanotubes that act as tiny antennas to capture light. Light is then converted into direct current by miniature, nanotechnology-enabled mechanisms called rectifier diodes. The research has the potential to double solar cell efficiency at one-tenth the cost, according to Cola. "Ultimately, we see the Waterman as fueling the final leg of our long-term effort to be the first to truly bring transformational applications of carbon nanotubes to the market," Cola said. "As of now, we know that there will be a substantial investment in engineering another breakthrough in carbon nanotube optical rectenna science." Cola also works to commercialize other novel nanotechnology-based innovations. In 2015, he participated in NSF Innovation Corps (I-Corps) at Georgia Tech, a program that immerses scientists and engineers in entrepreneurial training, teaching them to look beyond the lab and consider the commercial potential or broader impacts of their research. I-Corps participants interview prospective customers and identify market needs for federally funded innovations. In addition, Cola and colleagues were responsible for engineering breakthroughs, including the first thermally conductive amorphous polymer, the first practical electrochemical cell for generating electricity from waste heat and the first evidence of thermal energy conduction by surface polaritons. Cola, 35, is the founder of Carbice Nanotechnologies, Inc., a company that uses a carbon nanotube-material to remove heat from computer chip testing stations, allowing for faster and cheaper testing of chips during production. The technology could eventually result in smaller, faster, more powerful computer chips for use in everything from smartphones to supercomputers. Carbice Nanotechnologies received support from NSF's Small Business Innovation Research program. He also is co-founder of the NSF-funded Academic and Research Leadership Network, a group of more than 300 Ph.D. engineering researchers from minority groups underrepresented in academia, industry and government laboratories. Pardon is a Clay Research Fellow and professor of mathematics at Princeton University. His research focuses on geometry and topology, the study of properties of shapes that are unaffected by deformations, such as stretching or twisting. He is known for solving problems that stumped other mathematicians for decades and generating solutions that provide new tools for geometric analysis. In 2013, Pardon published a solution to the Hilbert-Smith conjecture, a mathematical proposition involving the actions of groups of "manifolds" in three dimensions. Manifolds include spheres and doughnut-shaped objects. The conjecture originates from one of the 23 problems published in 1900 by German mathematician David Hilbert, which helped guide the course of 20th century mathematics. American topologist Paul Althaus Smith proposed a stronger version of the problem in 1941. This problem has connections to many other areas of mathematics and physics. Pardon's publication was notable for proving this longstanding conjecture, a major achievement in mathematics. Prior to that publication, as a senior undergraduate at Princeton, Pardon answered a question posed in 1983 by Russian mathematician Mikhail Gromov regarding "knots," mathematical structures that resemble physical knots, but are closed, instead of having any ends. Gromov's question involved a special class of knots called "torus knots." He asked whether these knots could be tied without altering or distorting their topology. Pardon figured out a way to use the distortion between two properties of knots -- their intrinsic and extrinsic distances -- to control their topology. He showed that torus knots are limited by their geometric properties, and can be tied without altering their topology. Pardon's solution has important applications in fluid dynamics and electrodynamics, calculating forces involved in aircraft movement, predicting weather patterns, determining the flow of liquids through water treatment plant pipelines, determining the flow of electrical charges, and more. Pardon, who received his doctorate in mathematics in 2015 from Stanford University, has been a full professor at Princeton since fall 2016. Among other awards, Pardon earned a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship to support his graduate studies at Stanford. As of October last year, Pardon had published 11 papers on such subjects as contact homology, virtual fundamental cycles, the distortion of knots, algebraic varieties, and the carpenter's rule problem.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

THE island of Sardinia is remarkable for the fact that an exceptionally high proportion of the population is seemingly descended from people who have occupied it since the Neolithic and Bronze Age, between 8,000 and 2,000 years ago. For centuries after that, they had little interaction with mainland Europe. Now, University of Huddersfield researcher Dr Maria Pala has taken part in a project that has helped to unlock the genetic secrets of her Mediterranean homeland. One of the findings is that some modern Sardinians could have evolved from people who colonised the island at an even earlier period, the Mesolithic. Dr Pala - whose first degree was from the University of Sassari in her native Sardinia - is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Huddersfield and a member of its Archaeogenetics Research Group. The group is led by Professor Martin Richards and includes Dr Francesca Gandini as Research Fellow. They are all co-authors of a new article, titled Mitogenome Diversity in Sardinians: A Genetic Window onto an Island's Past, appearing in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution. It states that modern Sardinians are a "unique reservoir of distinct genetic signatures" and it describes how the research team, based at a number of UK, European and American universities and institutes, analysed 3,491 DNA samples from the present day population and compared them with 21 ancient samples taken from skeletal remains found in rock-cut tombs spanning from the Neolithic period to the Final Bronze Age. Dr Pala explained that this new study focused on the mitochondrial genome - the maternal line from mothers to daughters - because it provided an unbroken line of descent, much less complex than the whole genome. It emerged that 78.4 per cent of the modern mitogenomes actually cluster into "Sardinian-specific haplogroups". "That percentage is extremely high," said Dr Pala. "If you look at Europeans as a whole, you cannot essentially distinguish an English person from an Italian or a French, because Europeans have mixed together for a long time." Sardinia has always been an island, but it is believed that there was a time when a lower sea level meant it retained links with the continent, and through these links the first inhabitants reached the island from continental Europe. Then the sea level rose but, despite this, connections with the continent remained active through the Neolithic and Bronze Age, possibly fuelled by the abundance of natural resources such as obsidian and metals present in the island. Then, whether suddenly or gradually, these connections were severed or became sporadic so that for thousands of years Sardinians were isolated, developing their own language, culture, society and sense of identity. To this day, Sardinians speak their own tongue and they remain genetically distinctive, as the new article co-authored by Dr Pala demonstrates. It concludes that: Contemporary Sardinians harbour a unique genetic heritage as a result of their distinct history and relative isolation from the demographic upheavals of continental Europe. Whilst the major signal appears to be the legacy of the first farmers on the island, our results hint at the possibility that the situation might have been much more complex, both for Sardinia but also, by implication, for Europe as a whole. It now seems plausible that human mobility, inter-communication and gene flow around the Mediterranean from Late Glacial times onwards may well have left signatures that survive to this day.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

President Donald Trump today will meet with senior advisors and members of his cabinet to discuss the future of the Paris Climate Treaty, approved at COP-21 in December 2015. Then-President Obama never submitted the treaty to the United States Senate for ratification but began implementing its mandates unilaterally in 2016. When he was running for president, Trump promised to pull the United States out of the Paris Climate Treaty. More than 300 scientists have urged Donald Trump to remove the United States from the treaty. Heartland’s work on the Paris agreement includes this webpage, this opinion piece by Research Fellow H. Sterling Burnett, and this Research & Commentary on COP-21 and the Paris agreement. The following statements from climate policy experts at The Heartland Institute – a free-market think tank – may be used for attribution. For more comments, refer to the contact information below. To book a Heartland guest on your program, please contact New Media Specialist Billy Aouste at media(at)heartland(dot)org and 312/377-4000 or (cell) 847/447-7554. ________________________________________ “President Trump should run, not walk, away from the Paris Climate Treaty, for three main reasons. First, there is no scientific basis for the agreement. The only people who believe global warming is man-made and dangerous are the scientifically illiterate reporters/activists in the old media. The left tried to politicize the science and make a case for their political agenda, and they failed. Most scientists do not believe global warming is a crisis that merits current efforts aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, much less the draconian cuts envisioned by the Paris Climate Treaty. “Second, the Paris Climate Treaty puts America last, the exact opposite of what candidate Trump and now President Trump has promised. The treaty would require the United States to make massive reductions in emissions and pay billions of dollars in ‘climate reparations’ to Third World dictators, while requiring no emission cuts from developing countries including India and China. Why should the United States pay hundreds of billions of dollars to developing countries at a time when the U.S. government is running massive debts, when economic growth is slower for a longer period of time than at any time since the Great Depression, and when American workers are losing out to lower-paid workers in China and India? “Third, the Paris Climate Treaty is a job killer. Reducing emissions destroys jobs by increasing energy costs, which impoverishes American consumers and makes U.S. manufacturers less competitive with foreign producers. Low energy prices in the United States due to low coal, oil, and natural gas prices fueled nearly all the economic growth that occurred during the Obama years. If Obama-era restrictions on developing natural resources are lifted, billions of dollars in new manufacturing investment in the United States will occur and millions of jobs will be created. “Please, Mr. President, withdraw the United States from this anti-American treaty. Better yet, pull this noxious weed out by the roots by withdrawing the United States from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), a process that would be both faster and more certain to keep the hands of governments, both foreign and domestic, off our energy in the future.” “Were we to remain in the Paris Climate Treaty, it would give the world the message that even under President Trump, pacifism remains the way of the United States. The treaty is a plan to redistribute wealth in the world with absolutely no benefit to the planet’s environment. And it ultimately hurts the poorest of the poor because it will forever cheat them of the low-cost fossil fuel that has allowed most of the world to prosper.” “For the last eight years, we had a president who cared more about appealing to European allies than taking care of people struggling at home. On the campaign trail, then-candidate Donald Trump promised he would withdraw the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement and put American workers first. “The Paris Climate Agreement embodies everything wrong with former President Obama’s polices that caused thousands of people to lose their jobs and put Americans last. What’s worse, the supposed environmental benefits of this treaty are essentially zero. “Surrendering is for the French. Americans should not surrender their sovereignty to a foreign body they did not elect. Chinese manufacturers would be tickled pink if the United States stays in this agreement, but it does nothing but put the United States at a disadvantage to the rest of the world.” “As part of his ‘American First’ economic, energy, and foreign policy, President Trump should keep his campaign promise and pull out of the fatally flawed, costly, Paris Climate Agreement. The agreement puts U.S. companies at the mercy of international competitors in China, India, and beyond. We cut emissions and stifle economic growth while their economies keep chugging along and spewing emissions – and all for no global climate gain. “Going farther, Trump should end America’s participation in the entire United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which has done nothing but stifle innovation and economic progress while empowering international bureaucrats in enriching scientists and politicians on the backs of the American taxpayers. Hundreds of billions of dollars have been squandered, and there has been no reduction in poverty or improvement in environmental quality to show for it. Just a lot of rich bureaucrats and heads of NGOs travelling first class to exotic destinations, staying at five-star hotels and eating expensive meals. The money spent on all of these meetings could have saved thousands of lives each year. These meetings, not factory smokestacks, is where the real hot air is spewed.” “One of Donald Trump’s pledges to the American people when he was campaigning for the presidency was he would withdraw the United States from the Paris Climate Treaty. Now that he is president, it is time for him to make good on that promise. Simply, one cannot ‘Make America Great Again’ if America is still shackled to the Paris Climate Treaty, which seeks emissions reductions from the United States that are incompatible with economic growth and job creation. “Instead of keeping the United States tied to this albatross of an agreement that promotes even more taxes, regulations, and subsidies aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions, President Trump should withdraw the United States from the Paris Climate Treaty and support sound environmental stewardship that is pro-energy, pro-environment, and pro-jobs. Doing so would produce enormous economic dividends that would genuinely improve people’s lives.” Tim Benson Policy Analyst The Heartland Institute tbenson(at)heartland(dot)org 312/377-4000 ________________________________________ The Heartland Institute is a 33-year-old national nonprofit organization headquartered in Arlington Heights, Illinois. Its mission is to discover, develop, and promote free-market solutions to social and economic problems. For more information, visit our Web site or call 312/377-4000.


News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists at the University of Sheffield have developed a new technique to examine human sperm without killing them -- helping to improve the diagnosis of fertility problems. The Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy technique, uses powerful magnets and works like radar by firing pulses of energy at the sperm sample inside a purpose built scanner and then listening to the echoed signal by the molecules in response. This could help to distinguish between populations of good or poor sperm. Unlike other more destructive examination methods, the low energy pulses do not damage sperm, meaning they could potentially go on to be used in IVF treatment. This is similar to a technique that doctors use to capture images of cells and tissues inside the body. The novel approach was pioneered by physicists from the University of Sheffield's Academic Unit of Radiology working together with fertility experts from the University's Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine in the interdisciplinary spermNMR project. Professor Martyn Paley, from the University's Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, said: "The technique of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has been previously used to examine the molecular composition of many cells and tissues in other diseases such as cancer, but it has never previously been used to examine live sperm. As such, these results are a world first." During the study, scientists examined fresh sperm samples from healthy volunteers and patients for just over an hour. From the data gathered scientists were able to build up a profile of the molecules present in the sperm and how they differ between samples. Professor Allan Pacey, fertility expert from the University of Sheffield, who was part of the spermNMR study team, said: "Most of the advanced techniques we have available to examine the molecules in sperm end up destroying them in the process by either adding stains or by breaking open their membranes to look at the contents. "To potentially have a technique which can examine the molecular structure of sperm without damaging them is really exciting." One of the technical challenges that the team faced was how to detect the molecules that were present in sperm rather than those present in semen, the fluid in which sperm are ejaculated. To do this, the team examined a number of 'sperm washing' techniques that are currently used to prepare sperm for IVF. They found that by spinning the samples very fast in a centrifuge several times they were able to reduce the background noise from molecules in semen to a point where they could reliably detect the ones from sperm. Research Associate Dr Sarah Calvert from the spermNMR team, said: "Washing the sperm in a centrifuge is a critical step for this technique to work as any contamination from seminal plasma can also be detected by the scanner. But by adding an extra spin cycle to the techiques that are commonly used in IVF we were able to minimize that contamination." The results of the study show that a number of molecules such as Choline (vitamin-like essential nutrient) and Glycerophosphocholine (a natural choline compound found in the brain), Lipids (common components of sperm cell membranes) and Lactate (an end product of cellular energy usage) were significantly different between samples of sperm separated into 'good' and 'poor' populations. Research Fellow Dr Steven Reynolds explained: "The fact we can detect differences in molecular composition between samples of 'good' and 'poor' sperm is really significant because it opens up the opportunity for us to develop a novel biomarker to help with diagnosis. "Or it might one day allow us to design specific therapies for men with poor sperm that might help give them a boost." The study is published today (24 May 2017) in the journal Molecular Human Reproduction and was funded by an Medical Research Council grant "Spectroscopic Probes Of Energy Regulation And Metabolism (SPERM): Using High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Of Metabolic Pathways To Identify Potential Biomarkers Of Male Fertility" (Grant Ref MR/M010473/1) awarded to Professors Allan Pacey and Martyn Paley. For further information please contact: Amy Pullan, Media Relations Officer, University of Sheffield, 0114 222 9859, a.l.pullan@sheffield.ac.uk The paper, '1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of live human sperm' by Reynolds et al, will be published in the journal Molecular Human Reproduction, at 00:01 (BST) on 24 May 2017 More details about the project can be found on the study website at: http://spermnmr. The twitter account for the project is: @SpermNMR With almost 27,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries, learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the University of Sheffield is one of the world's leading universities. A member of the UK's prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions, Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide range of disciplines. Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in. Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2017 and was voted number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education in 2014. In the last decade it has won four Queen's Anniversary Prizes in recognition of the outstanding contribution to the United Kingdom's intellectual, economic, cultural and social life. Sheffield has six Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields. Global research partners and clients include Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens and Airbus, as well as many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable foundations. For further information, please visit http://www. To read other news releases about the University of Sheffield, visit http://www.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Scientists at the University of Sheffield have developed a new technique to examine human sperm without killing them -- helping to improve the diagnosis of fertility problems. The Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy technique, uses powerful magnets and works like radar by firing pulses of energy at the sperm sample inside a purpose built scanner and then listening to the echoed signal by the molecules in response. This could help to distinguish between populations of good or poor sperm. Unlike other more destructive examination methods, the low energy pulses do not damage sperm, meaning they could potentially go on to be used in IVF treatment. This is similar to a technique that doctors use to capture images of cells and tissues inside the body. The novel approach was pioneered by physicists from the University of Sheffield's Academic Unit of Radiology working together with fertility experts from the University's Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine in the interdisciplinary spermNMR project. Professor Martyn Paley, from the University's Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, said: "The technique of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has been previously used to examine the molecular composition of many cells and tissues in other diseases such as cancer, but it has never previously been used to examine live sperm. As such, these results are a world first." During the study, scientists examined fresh sperm samples from healthy volunteers and patients for just over an hour. From the data gathered scientists were able to build up a profile of the molecules present in the sperm and how they differ between samples. Professor Allan Pacey, fertility expert from the University of Sheffield, who was part of the spermNMR study team, said: "Most of the advanced techniques we have available to examine the molecules in sperm end up destroying them in the process by either adding stains or by breaking open their membranes to look at the contents. "To potentially have a technique which can examine the molecular structure of sperm without damaging them is really exciting." One of the technical challenges that the team faced was how to detect the molecules that were present in sperm rather than those present in semen, the fluid in which sperm are ejaculated. To do this, the team examined a number of 'sperm washing' techniques that are currently used to prepare sperm for IVF. They found that by spinning the samples very fast in a centrifuge several times they were able to reduce the background noise from molecules in semen to a point where they could reliably detect the ones from sperm. Research Associate Dr Sarah Calvert from the spermNMR team, said: "Washing the sperm in a centrifuge is a critical step for this technique to work as any contamination from seminal plasma can also be detected by the scanner. But by adding an extra spin cycle to the techiques that are commonly used in IVF we were able to minimize that contamination." The results of the study show that a number of molecules such as Choline (vitamin-like essential nutrient) and Glycerophosphocholine (a natural choline compound found in the brain), Lipids (common components of sperm cell membranes) and Lactate (an end product of cellular energy usage) were significantly different between samples of sperm separated into 'good' and 'poor' populations. Research Fellow Dr Steven Reynolds explained: "The fact we can detect differences in molecular composition between samples of 'good' and 'poor' sperm is really significant because it opens up the opportunity for us to develop a novel biomarker to help with diagnosis. "Or it might one day allow us to design specific therapies for men with poor sperm that might help give them a boost."


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New observations about the extreme conditions of Jupiter's weather and magnetic fields by University of Leicester astronomers have contributed to the revelations and insights coming from the first close passes of Jupiter by NASA's Juno mission, announced today (25 May). The astronomers from the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, led by the UK science lead for the Juno mission, have led three papers and contributed to four papers in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, that support the first in-depth science results from Juno published in the journal Science. Juno made its first scientific close-up, known as a 'perijove', on 27 August last year. Lasting a few hours, the spacecraft flies from the north pole to the south pole, dipping within 4000 km of the equatorial clouds and beneath Jupiter's most intense and damaging radiation belts. The Juno team organized a campaign with astronomers using Earth- and space-based telescopes around the globe to collaborate with the Juno science team. These collaborations provide the Juno science team with a 'forecast' of the gas giant's intense weather systems and powerful aurorae to compare with Juno close observations. The results from Juno have proven Jupiter to be an even more extreme and surprising environment than the scientists predicted. A model of the workings of Jupiter's polar aurorae (northern lights) was detailed by Professor Stan Cowley, Professor of Solar Planetary Physics at University of Leicester and the UK science lead for Juno, with colleagues at the University of Leicester. This model, based upon spacecraft flybys and Galileo orbiter observations, details the electric currents which couple the polar upper atmosphere to the planetary field and plasma at large distances, and offers a comparison of Juno's early data with a prediction of what Juno would observe on its first 'perijove'. Professor Cowley, who is a co-author on the Science paper, said: "Our new paper in the Juno special issue of Geophysical Research Letters makes detailed predictions about what should be seen, and when, on Juno's first perijove pass, and we plan to continue this work for subsequent passes as well. Our prediction is being published alongside the early Juno data. We look forward to future release of the fully calibrated Juno data that will allow these predictions to be tested in detail." Dr Jonathan Nichols, Reader in Planetary Auroras at University of Leicester, was also involved in monitoring Jupiter's polar aurorae during Juno's approach to Jupiter. He led on observations of the impact of the solar wind on the auroras using the Hubble Space Telescope, for the first time confirming the impact of the solar wind on auroras on Jupiter - and capturing the most powerful auroras observed by Hubble to date. Dr Nichols said: "Jupiter threw an auroral firework party to celebrate Juno's arrival. We have been able to show that intense pulses of aurora were triggered during intervals when the solar wind was buffeting the giant magnetosphere. This tells us that even Jupiter's mighty magnetosphere is, like those of Earth and Saturn, not immune to the vagaries of the Sun and the solar wind." Dr Leigh Fletcher, Royal Society Research Fellow at University of Leicester, has led Earth-based observations of Jupiter's atmospheric weather systems which take the form of dark and light banding of colour as seen from Earth. Closer inspection using the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) reveals that this banding is constantly changing over long spans of time. Juno is starting to reveal the deep processes driving these changes from below the clouds. Dr Fletcher said: "Juno's data shows that Jupiter exhibits banding all the way down to ~350km, much deeper than what we've generally thought of as Jupiter's 'weather layer' in the upper few tens of kilometres. Deep sounding down through the clouds for the first time has revealed an enormous circulation pattern with a column of rising equatorial gas, suggesting that those cloud-top colours really are just the tip of the iceberg. This is much deeper than we can see with Earth- or space-based telescopes. "The presence of the Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter is providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to combine remote observations with in situ studies of the jovian environment, a chance that won't come again for at least a decade. Already, Juno's discoveries are forcing us to re-evaluate some long-standing ideas about how this giant planet system works." Juno launched on 5 Aug 2011, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and arrived in orbit around Jupiter on 4 July 2016. In its current exploration mission, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops, as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno probes beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studies its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. The University of Leicester is home to the UK science lead for the Juno mission, NASA's programme to study our solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Planetary scientists and astronomers from the Department of Physics and Astronomy are studying the gas giant's magnetosphere, dynamic atmosphere and its beautiful polar auroras. Dr Jonathan Nichols (unavailable on Thursday 25 May) Reader in Planetary Auroras jdn4@le.ac.uk Cowley, S.W.H., G. Provan, E.J. Bunce, and J.D. Nichols, Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Jupiter: Expectations for Juno Perijove 1 from a steady-state axisymmetric physical model, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073129, 2017. Nichols, J.D., S.V. Badman, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, E.J. Bunce, J.T. Clarke, J.E.P. Connerney, S.W.H. Cowley, R.W. Ebert, M. Fujimoto, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, T. Kimura, W.S. Kurth, B.H. Mauk, G. Murakami, D.J. McComas, G.S. Orton, A. Radioti, T.S. Stallard, C. Tao, P.W. Valek, R.J. Wilson, A. Yamazaki, and I. Yoshikawa, Response of Jupiter's auroras to conditions in the interplanetary medium as measured by the Hubble Space Telescope and Juno, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073029,2017. L.N. Fletcher, (2017), Cycles of Activity in the Jovian Atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett, in press. Moore, L., O'Donoghue, J., Melin, H., Stallard, T., Tao, C., Zieger, B., Clarke, J., Vogt, M. F., Bhakyapaibul, T., Opher, M., Tóth, G., Connerney, J. E. P., Levin, S., and Bolton, S., Variability of Jupiter's IR H3+ aurorae during Juno approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press T. Kimura, J. D. Nichols, R. L. Gray, C. Tao, G. Murakami, A. Yamazaki, S. V. Badman, F. Tsuchiya, K. Yoshioka, H. Kita, D. Grodent, G. Clark, I. Yoshikawa, and M. Fujimoto, Transient brightening of Jupiter's aurora observed by the Hisaki satellite and Hubble Space Telescope during approach phase of the Juno spacecraft, 10.1002/2017GL072912 Connerney, J.E.P., A. Adriani, F. Allegrini, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, S.W.H. Cowley, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, G. Hospodarsky, J. Jorgensen, W. Kurth, S.M. Levin, B. Mauk, D.J. McComas, A. Mura, C. Paranicas, E.J. Smith, R.M. Thorne, P. Valek, and J. Waite, Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits, Science, in press, 2017.


The astronomers from the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, led by the UK science lead for the Juno mission, have led three papers and contributed to four papers in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, that support the first in-depth science results from Juno published in the journal Science. Juno made its first scientific close-up, known as a 'perijove', on 27 August last year. Lasting a few hours, the spacecraft flies from the north pole to the south pole, dipping within 4000 km of the equatorial clouds and beneath Jupiter's most intense and damaging radiation belts. The Juno team organized a campaign with astronomers using Earth- and space-based telescopes around the globe to collaborate with the Juno science team. These collaborations provide the Juno science team with a 'forecast' of the gas giant's intense weather systems and powerful aurorae to compare with Juno close observations. The results from Juno have proven Jupiter to be an even more extreme and surprising environment than the scientists predicted. A model of the workings of Jupiter's polar aurorae (northern lights) was detailed by Professor Stan Cowley, Professor of Solar Planetary Physics at University of Leicester and the UK science lead for Juno, with colleagues at the University of Leicester. This model, based upon spacecraft flybys and Galileo orbiter observations, details the electric currents which couple the polar upper atmosphere to the planetary field and plasma at large distances, and offers a comparison of Juno's early data with a prediction of what Juno would observe on its first 'perijove'. Professor Cowley, who is a co-author on the Science paper, said: "Our new paper in the Juno special issue of Geophysical Research Letters makes detailed predictions about what should be seen, and when, on Juno's first perijove pass, and we plan to continue this work for subsequent passes as well. Our prediction is being published alongside the early Juno data. We look forward to future release of the fully calibrated Juno data that will allow these predictions to be tested in detail." Dr Jonathan Nichols, Reader in Planetary Auroras at University of Leicester, was also involved in monitoring Jupiter's polar aurorae during Juno's approach to Jupiter. He led on observations of the impact of the solar wind on the auroras using the Hubble Space Telescope, for the first time confirming the impact of the solar wind on auroras on Jupiter - and capturing the most powerful auroras observed by Hubble to date. Dr Nichols said: "Jupiter threw an auroral firework party to celebrate Juno's arrival. We have been able to show that intense pulses of aurora were triggered during intervals when the solar wind was buffeting the giant magnetosphere. This tells us that even Jupiter's mighty magnetosphere is, like those of Earth and Saturn, not immune to the vagaries of the Sun and the solar wind." Dr Leigh Fletcher, Royal Society Research Fellow at University of Leicester, has led Earth-based observations of Jupiter's atmospheric weather systems which take the form of dark and light banding of colour as seen from Earth. Closer inspection using the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) reveals that this banding is constantly changing over long spans of time. Juno is starting to reveal the deep processes driving these changes from below the clouds. Dr Fletcher said: "Juno's data shows that Jupiter exhibits banding all the way down to ~350km, much deeper than what we've generally thought of as Jupiter's 'weather layer' in the upper few tens of kilometres. Deep sounding down through the clouds for the first time has revealed an enormous circulation pattern with a column of rising equatorial gas, suggesting that those cloud-top colours really are just the tip of the iceberg. This is much deeper than we can see with Earth- or space-based telescopes. "The presence of the Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter is providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to combine remote observations with in situ studies of the jovian environment, a chance that won't come again for at least a decade. Already, Juno's discoveries are forcing us to re-evaluate some long-standing ideas about how this giant planet system works." Juno launched on 5 Aug 2011, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and arrived in orbit around Jupiter on 4 July 2016. In its current exploration mission, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops, as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno probes beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studies its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. The University of Leicester is home to the UK science lead for the Juno mission, NASA's programme to study our solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Planetary scientists and astronomers from the Department of Physics and Astronomy are studying the gas giant's magnetosphere, dynamic atmosphere and its beautiful polar auroras. Explore further: Juno spacecraft set for fifth Jupiter flyby More information: L. N. Fletcher, Cycles of Activity in the Jovian Atmosphere, Geophysical Research Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073806 Cowley, S.W.H., G. Provan, E.J. Bunce, and J.D. Nichols, Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Jupiter: Expectations for Juno Perijove 1 from a steady-state axisymmetric physical model, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073129, 2017. Nichols, J.D., S.V. Badman, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, E.J. Bunce, J.T. Clarke, J.E.P. Connerney, S.W.H. Cowley, R.W. Ebert, M. Fujimoto, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, T. Kimura, W.S. Kurth, B.H. Mauk, G. Murakami, D.J. McComas, G.S. Orton, A. Radioti, T.S. Stallard, C. Tao, P.W. Valek, R.J. Wilson, A. Yamazaki, and I. Yoshikawa, Response of Jupiter's auroras to conditions in the interplanetary medium as measured by the Hubble Space Telescope and Juno, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073029,2017. Moore, L., O'Donoghue, J., Melin, H., Stallard, T., Tao, C., Zieger, B., Clarke, J., Vogt, M. F., Bhakyapaibul, T., Opher, M., Tóth, G., Connerney, J. E. P., Levin, S., and Bolton, S., Variability of Jupiter's IR H3+ aurorae during Juno approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press T. Kimura, J. D. Nichols, R. L. Gray, C. Tao, G. Murakami, A. Yamazaki, S. V. Badman, F. Tsuchiya, K. Yoshioka, H. Kita, D. Grodent, G. Clark, I. Yoshikawa, and M. Fujimoto, Transient brightening of Jupiter's aurora observed by the Hisaki satellite and Hubble Space Telescope during approach phase of the Juno spacecraft, 10.1002/2017GL072912 Connerney, J.E.P., A. Adriani, F. Allegrini, F. Bagenal, S.J. Bolton, B. Bonfond, S.W.H. Cowley, J. C. Gérard, G.R. Gladstone, D. Grodent, G. Hospodarsky, J. Jorgensen, W. Kurth, S.M. Levin, B. Mauk, D.J. McComas, A. Mura, C. Paranicas, E.J. Smith, R.M. Thorne, P. Valek, and J. Waite, Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits, Science, in press, 2017.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

New observations about the extreme conditions of Jupiter's weather and magnetic fields by University of Leicester astronomers have contributed to the revelations and insights coming from the first close passes of Jupiter by NASA's Juno mission, announced today (25 May). The astronomers from the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, led by the UK science lead for the Juno mission, have led three papers and contributed to four papers in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, that support the first in-depth science results from Juno published in the journal Science. Juno made its first scientific close-up, known as a 'perijove', on 27 August last year. Lasting a few hours, the spacecraft flies from the north pole to the south pole, dipping within 4000 km of the equatorial clouds and beneath Jupiter's most intense and damaging radiation belts. The Juno team organized a campaign with astronomers using Earth- and space-based telescopes around the globe to collaborate with the Juno science team. These collaborations provide the Juno science team with a 'forecast' of the gas giant's intense weather systems and powerful aurorae to compare with Juno close observations. The results from Juno have proven Jupiter to be an even more extreme and surprising environment than the scientists predicted. A model of the workings of Jupiter's polar aurorae (northern lights) was detailed by Professor Stan Cowley, Professor of Solar Planetary Physics at University of Leicester and the UK science lead for Juno, with colleagues at the University of Leicester. This model, based upon spacecraft flybys and Galileo orbiter observations, details the electric currents which couple the polar upper atmosphere to the planetary field and plasma at large distances, and offers a comparison of Juno's early data with a prediction of what Juno would observe on its first 'perijove'. Professor Cowley, who is a co-author on the Science paper, said: "Our new paper in the Juno special issue of Geophysical Research Letters makes detailed predictions about what should be seen, and when, on Juno's first perijove pass, and we plan to continue this work for subsequent passes as well. Our prediction is being published alongside the early Juno data. We look forward to future release of the fully calibrated Juno data that will allow these predictions to be tested in detail." Dr Jonathan Nichols, Reader in Planetary Auroras at University of Leicester, was also involved in monitoring Jupiter's polar aurorae during Juno's approach to Jupiter. He led on observations of the impact of the solar wind on the auroras using the Hubble Space Telescope, for the first time confirming the impact of the solar wind on auroras on Jupiter -- and capturing the most powerful auroras observed by Hubble to date. Dr Nichols said: "Jupiter threw an auroral firework party to celebrate Juno's arrival. We have been able to show that intense pulses of aurora were triggered during intervals when the solar wind was buffeting the giant magnetosphere. This tells us that even Jupiter's mighty magnetosphere is, like those of Earth and Saturn, not immune to the vagaries of the Sun and the solar wind." Dr Leigh Fletcher, Royal Society Research Fellow at University of Leicester, has led Earth-based observations of Jupiter's atmospheric weather systems which take the form of dark and light banding of colour as seen from Earth. Closer inspection using the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) reveals that this banding is constantly changing over long spans of time. Juno is starting to reveal the deep processes driving these changes from below the clouds. Dr Fletcher said: "Juno's data shows that Jupiter exhibits banding all the way down to ~350km, much deeper than what we've generally thought of as Jupiter's 'weather layer' in the upper few tens of kilometres. Deep sounding down through the clouds for the first time has revealed an enormous circulation pattern with a column of rising equatorial gas, suggesting that those cloud-top colours really are just the tip of the iceberg. This is much deeper than we can see with Earth- or space-based telescopes. "The presence of the Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter is providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to combine remote observations with in situ studies of the jovian environment, a chance that won't come again for at least a decade. Already, Juno's discoveries are forcing us to re-evaluate some long-standing ideas about how this giant planet system works." Juno launched on 5 Aug 2011, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, and arrived in orbit around Jupiter on 4 July 2016. In its current exploration mission, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops, as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno probes beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studies its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere. The University of Leicester is home to the UK science lead for the Juno mission, NASA's programme to study our solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Planetary scientists and astronomers from the Department of Physics and Astronomy are studying the gas giant's magnetosphere, dynamic atmosphere and its beautiful polar auroras.


We contribute to existing knowledge translation (KT) literature by developing the notion of 'enactment' and illustrate this through an interpretative, comparative case-study analysis of three Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) initiatives. We argue for a focus on the way in which the CLAHRC model has been 'enacted' as central to the different KT challenges and capabilities encountered. A comparative, mixed method study created a typology of enactments (Classical, Home-grown and Imported) using qualitative analysis and social network analysis. We identify systematic differences in the enactment of the CLAHRC model. The sources of these different enactments are subsequently related to variation in formative interpretations and leadership styles, the implementation of different governance structures, and the relative epistemic differences between the professional groups involved. Enactment concerns the creative agency of individuals and groups in constituting a particular context for their work through their local interpretation of a particular KT model. Our theory of enactment goes beyond highlighting variation between CLAHRCs, to explore the mechanisms that influence the way a particular model is interpreted and acted upon. We thus encourage less focus on conceptual models and more on the formative role played by leaders of KT initiatives.

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