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The Advisory Council is led by Swamy Kotagiri, Magna Chief Technology Officer (CTO), and consists of some of the most recognized and respected experts in the global automotive and tech industries. The council brings a wider circle of insight, knowledge and experience from various industries that ultimately helps accelerate the execution of Magna's technology and business objectives. "The pace of innovation in the automotive industry is like nothing we have ever seen before, creating even more challenges and opportunities," said Kotagiri.  "At Magna, we welcome the challenge and aim to seize the opportunities by continuing to leverage our culture of innovation, while embracing a new level of innovation outreach.  We are excited to have such a distinguished group of individuals bringing their vision and insights to our company." Advisory Council members will provide high-level strategic planning insights and experience in the areas of advanced driver assistance systems, environmental and automotive safety, overall industry trends, and next-generation technologies. Chaired by Kotagiri, the Advisory Council is comprised of six members who are recognized leaders in their respective fields, several of whom have significant experience in product innovation and the implementation of new technologies. "Magna's deep vehicle systems knowledge and electronics capabilities, combined with its global engineering and manufacturing expertise, are remarkable," said Tony Fadell. "They are in a great position to help drive change in the auto industry and I am excited to be working with such an innovative company." "Magna is a company committed to helping define the future of mobility and I am delighted to be a part of such a distinguished group of individuals who collectively can bring new opportunities to Magna and the industry," said Dr. Ian Hunter. Swamy Kotagiri is globally responsible for managing Magna's innovation and new product strategy and development.  As CTO, Kotagiri helps Magna's product groups bring innovative ideas to the market, which allows the company to move the automotive industry forward. Mei-Wei Cheng is a member of the Board of Directors of Seagate Technology PLC and recently served as non-executive Chairman of Pactera.  He was the former CEO and President for the Chinese subsidiaries of AT&T, Siemens Ford Motor Company and General Electric. He holds a bachelor's degree in industrial engineering/operations research from Cornell University and an MBA from Rutgers University. Tony Fadell is the inventor of the iPod, an inventor of the iPhone, and founder of Nest, the company that pioneered the "Internet of things".  He is an active investor and entrepreneur with a 25-year history of founding companies and designing products that improve people's lives. Fadell has authored more than 300 patents.  In May 2016, TIME named Nest Thermostat, the iPod and iPhone as three of the "50 Most Influential Gadgets of All Time." Dr. Ian Hunter is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering and runs the BioInstrumentation Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Dr. Hunter has filed over 150 patents, produced more than 500 scientific and engineering publications, and has founded and/or co-founded 25 companies. He received his bachelor's, master's and doctorate degrees from the University of Auckland and completed a post-doctoral fellowship in the department of Biomedical Engineering at McGill University in Canada. John Maddox is the CEO of the American Center for Mobility. He began his career as a Research Engineer at Ford Motor Company and has held positions such as Associate Administrator at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Compliance Officer at Volkswagen North America. He holds a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Maryland and a master's degree in engineering management from the University of Detroit Mercy. Paul Mascarenas is a member of the Board of Directors at ON Semiconductor and the United States Steel Corporation.  He previously held a number of senior leadership positions at Ford Motor Company, most recently serving as Chief Technical Officer.  Paul holds a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from the University of London, King's College in England and holds an honorary doctorate degree from Chongqing University in China. ABOUT MAGNA We are a leading global automotive supplier with 317 manufacturing operations and 102 product development, engineering and sales centres in 29 countries. We have over 155,000 employees focused on delivering superior value to our customers through innovative products and processes, and world class manufacturing. We have complete vehicle engineering and contract manufacturing expertise, as well as product capabilities which include body, chassis, exterior, seating, powertrain, active driver assistance, vision, closure and roof systems. We also have electronic and software capabilities across many of these areas.  Our common shares trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange (MG) and the New York Stock Exchange (MGA). For further information about Magna, visit our website at www.magna.com. THIS RELEASE MAY CONTAIN STATEMENTS WHICH CONSTITUTE "FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS" UNDER APPLICABLE SECURITIES LEGISLATION AND ARE SUBJECT TO, AND EXPRESSLY QUALIFIED BY, THE CAUTIONARY DISCLAIMERS THAT ARE SET OUT IN MAGNA'S REGULATORY FILINGS. PLEASE REFER TO MAGNA'S MOST CURRENT MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL POSITION, ANNUAL INFORMATION FORM AND ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 40-F, AS REPLACED OR UPDATED BY ANY OF MAGNA'S SUBSEQUENT REGULATORY FILINGS, WHICH SET OUT THE CAUTIONARY DISCLAIMERS, INCLUDING THE RISK FACTORS THAT COULD CAUSE ACTUAL EVENTS TO DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THOSE INDICATED BY SUCH FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS. THESE DOCUMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR REVIEW ON MAGNA'S WEBSITE AT WWW.MAGNA.COM.

News Article | May 6, 2017
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

MARICOPA, AZ, May 06, 2017-- Avinash Chandra Singhal is a celebrated Marquis Who's Who biographee. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Marquis Who's Who, the world's premier publisher of biographical profiles, is proud to name Dr. Singhal a Lifetime Achiever. An accomplished listee, Dr. Singhal celebrates many years' experience in his professional network, and has been noted for achievements, leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes he has accrued in his field.An esteemed and lauded figure in his field, Dr. Singhal most recently served as a professor at Arizona State University, a position he held for nearly 30 years. Other roles he held include Director of the Central Building Research Institute, Project Engineer at Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Manager of Technological Services for Engineers India Ltd., Manager of General Electric in Philadelphia, PA Assistant Program Manager of TRW Inc. in Redondo Beach, CA, Professor at Universite Laval, and Research Engineer at Kaman Corporation, Burlington, MA.Dr. Signhal conducted research in computer modeling, research in blast effects on structures, research in lifeline engineering, research in earthquake strengthening of deteriorated dams, and research in steel and concrete buildings, bridges, materials and non-linear finite element dynamics.Sr. Singhal contributed to the following works: "Dynamic Analysis of Dams with Nonlinear Slip Joints" (1998), "Performance of Retrofit Arch Dams" (1998), "Arizona Emergency Center Retrofit" (1998), "Simulation of Blast Pressures on Flexible Panels" (1994), "System Flexibility and Reflected Pressures" (1993) and "Wood Substitute: A National Priority, India."In addition to his status as a Lifetime Achiever, Dr. Singhal has previously received the First Prize in Bridge Building from the Institution of Structural Engineers, the Merit Award from the Institution of Engineers India, and the Henry Adams Research Medal from the Structural Engineers London.Moreover, Dr. Singhal has been recognized as a fellow of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, American Society of Civil Engineers, Royal Astronomical Society and Kobe University, as well as a Dennison Scholar of The Institution of Civil Engineers. Furthermore, Dr. Singhal has received grants from the Department of Emergency and Military Affairs, the Office of Naval Research, the United States Department of the Interior, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the National Science Foundation. Dr. Singhal has also been a featured listee in Who's Who in Finance and Business, Who's Who in Finance and Industry, Who's Who in America, Who's Who in Science and Engineering, Who's Who in the West and Who's Who in the World.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com

News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

DfR Solutions, a leader in quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) solutions for the electronics industry, made major strides in further developing its team of experts with several new additions in 2016. Their vast experience and knowledge will allow DfR Solutions to provide enhanced capabilities and deeper insight into the advancement of technology reliability. Dr. Vidyu Challa, PhD, Technical Director — Dr. Challa has a diverse background in engineering technology and R&D that spans the semiconductor and battery industries, including failure analysis efforts to diagnose product and process defects. Dr. Rita Mohanty, PhD, Senior Member, Technical Staff — Dr. Mohanty joins the team with a career that spans R&D, technology management, product development, technical road mapping, IP management, segment market selling, global customer support, manufacturing and consultative services. Lloyd Condra, Senior Consultant — A pioneer in electronics manufacturing and leader in the aerospace, defense, high performance (ADHP) industry, and as a Technical Fellow at Boeing, Mr. Condra led efforts to use COTS parts and assemblies. Dr. Maxim Serebini, PhD, Research Engineer — Dr. Serebini’s background is in experimental mechanics and mechanical characterization of non-ferrous metallic alloys. His research attracted support from the electronics industry and he is currently working on consortium efforts to characterize fatigue performance of Pb-free components. ​ Ashok Alagappan, Senior Member, Technical Staff — A semiconductor professional with 12 years engineering experience in product development, process integration and yield enhancement, Mr. Alagappan has expertise in data analysis, problem solving, project management, technology transfer, new product introductions, and circuit design and layout. Natalie Hernandez, PhD, Product Engineer — As an experimental physicist, Ms. Hernandez brings strong analytical, quantitative and technical skills with key competencies in solid state physics/materials science, data analysis and optical experimentation. Josh Akman, Technical Staff — A mechanical engineer with a reliability focus, Mr. Akman has several years of broad experience with various accelerated testing and failure analysis techniques. His previous research examined the thermomechanical effects on encapsulation on electronics. Tyler Ferris, Technical Staff — A former research fellow at the University of Pittsburgh, Mr. Ferris completed research projects to improve methodologies for various aspects of nuclear power plants, and contributed to the design, fabrication, and testing of medical surgical devices. Also, DfR Solutions has contracted with independent consultant Meg Novacek, a reliability expert with 28 years of automotive experience who offers engineering and quality process improvement advice to the industry, notably those affecting the autonomous vehicle sector. “The addition of so many notable experts from various industries and backgrounds is a major contribution to our company,” said Dr. Craig Hillman, CEO and Managing Partner at DfR Solutions. “These individuals’ knowledge, combined with their dedication to results-driven solutions, positions us to better serve our customers' needs and further the success of their products.” Hear the expertise and insight of DfR Solutions team members at the 2017 Annual Design for Reliability Conference: Implementing Physics of Failure in Electronic Products and Systems being held Monday, March 20 in Baltimore. Agenda and registration information is available at https://dfrconference.eventbrite.com. ABOUT DFR SOLUTIONS, LLC DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry. The company’s integrated use of Physics of Failure (PoF) and Best Practices provides crucial insights and solutions early in product design and development and throughout the product life cycle. DfR Solutions specializes in providing knowledge- and science-based solutions to maximize and accelerate the product integrity assurance activities of their clients in every marketplace for electronic technologies (consumer, industrial, automotive, medical, military, telecom, oil drilling, and throughout the electronic component and material supply chain). For more information regarding DfR Solutions, visit http://www.dfrsolutions.com.

News Article | January 20, 2016
Site: phys.org

A view from the Experimental Zone floor of the ALPHA-2 Cryostat and external solenoid assembly, with control and data acquisition electronics located on the overhead platform above the cryostat. Credit: Photo by Robert Thompson, ALPHA-2 member, University of Calgary Scientists of the international ALPHA Collaboration have once again pushed the boundaries of antimatter research with their latest breakthrough studying the properties of antihydrogen. Published today in the prestigious journal Nature, the collaboration's result improved the measurement of the charge of antihydrogen, essentially zero, by a factor of 20. Their work is the latest contribution in the quest to chase down the answer to the basic antimatter question, "If matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts during the Big Bang, where did all the antimatter go?" "That means the electrical charge of antihydrogen - the antimatter analogue of hydrogen - can be ruled out as the answer to the antimatter question," says York University Professor Scott Menary, an ALPHA member. "The point of the experiment was to search for a clue as to how or where our predictions of nature are wrong," continues Menary. "Something is missing in our understanding otherwise the matter and antimatter at the Big Bang would have annihilated each other and there would be no universe today. The interactions of matter and antimatter must somehow be different." Physics dictates that for every particle of matter there is an oppositely charged antiparticle with an equal mass. An antihydrogen atom should have the exact same charge as hydrogen (zero). That's because the antiproton and antielectron (positron), which make up antihydrogen, should have the exact opposite charge of the proton and electron that make up hydrogen. Dr. Andrea Capra, a former PhD student of Menary's (now at TRIUMF) who played a major role in the analysis behind this result, says, "We take the charge of matter and antimatter for granted, however, you cannot analyze data or make an experiment assuming it's true." This result showed that antihydrogen and hydrogen are indeed both electrically neutral at a level 20 times more precise than before. Since the antiproton charge is also known to a similar precision, the collaboration also has improved the previous best precision on the positron charge by a factor of 25. While both results uphold the Standard Model, they have constrained what possible extensions to it could be. Capra points out that this work addresses one piece of a larger puzzle. When comparing normal matter to antimatter, he says that "there is the piece comparing their charges, the piece comparing their light spectrums, and the piece comparing how they respond to gravity." The latter piece will be investigated by a dedicated experiment, ALPHA-g, spearheaded by the University of Calgary and including the Canadian members of the collaboration. The experiment was the first using the upgraded "ALPHA-2" system which began operation last year. The largest component, the cooling cryostat, was designed and built at TRIUMF and the University of Calgary by a team led by Mechanical Research Engineer Cam Marshall and Research Scientist (now Emeritus) Art Olin. Scientists at Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia also contributed to the construction and assembly of the ALPHA-2 apparatus, including the cryostat. Marshall explained that "the cryostat houses a unique octopole magnet with the antimatter trap, into which was fed the laser spectroscopy system, microwave system, liquid helium cooling, super-conducting current leads, diagnostic wiring, and thermal shielding. A lot going on in a small space!" According to Olin, the experiment's success was "facilitated by the stable cryogenic environment and higher trapping rate of this new atom trap." The experiment was tricky because the team had to isolate the antihydrogen within a sophisticated "magnetic bottle" without it coming into contact with matter as it would then annihilate and disappear. Having passed the first test of their upgraded apparatus with flying colours, the ALPHA Collobration is anxious to attack the other even more exciting pieces of the antimatter puzzle in the coming years. "We will now look at the other pieces of the puzzle, such as the colour of the light emitted by antihydrogen, and test whether hydrogen and antihydrogen emit light in the same way," says Capra. "We are also working on measuring the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen and determining whether matter and antimatter have the same gravitational behaviour. The next several years are going to be very exciting." Explore further: How things break (and why scientists want to know) More information: M. Ahmadi et al. An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature16491

News Article | February 5, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« U Toronto study measures GDI emissions in urban near-road environment | Main | German team reconfigures Li-S battery for improved performance; new porous conductive separator coating » Researchers at HRL Laboratories, LLC, have achieved the first demonstration of gallium nitride (GaN) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistor (FET) technology. In doing so they have established that the semiconductor’s superior transistor performance can be harnessed in an integrated circuit. This breakthrough paves the way for GaN to become the technology of choice for power conversion circuits that are made in silicon today. According to HRL Senior Staff Research Engineer and Principal Investigator Dr. Rongming Chu, GaN transistors have long excelled in both power switching and microwave/millimeter wave applications, but their potential for integrated power conversion has been unrealized. “Unless the fast-switching GaN power transistor is intentionally slowed down in power circuits, chip-to-chip parasitic inductance causes voltage instabilities,” he said. Chu and his colleagues in HRL’s Microelectronics Laboratory have overcome that limitation, developing a GaN CMOS technology that integrates enhancement-mode GaN NMOS and PMOS on the same wafer. Today, GaN transistors are being designed into radar systems, cellular base stations, and power converters such as those found in computer notebook power adaptors. In the near term, GaN CMOS IC applications could include power integrated circuits that manage electricity more efficiently while having a significantly smaller form factor and lower cost, and integrated circuits that can operate in harsh environments, Chu said. In the long term, GaN CMOS has the potential to replace silicon CMOS in a wide range of products, he added. The HRL research team’s demonstration was published in IEEE Electron Device Letters. HRL Laboratories, LLC is a corporate R&D laboratory owned by The Boeing Company and General Motors specializing in research into sensors and materials, information and systems sciences, applied electromagnetics, and microelectronics.

News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

SolarEdge Technologies, Inc. (“SolarEdge”) (NASDAQ: SEDG), a global leader in PV inverters, power optimizers, and module-level monitoring services, announces that Intertek confirmed that samples of SolarEdge inverters were the first it tested to meet the UL 1741 SA draft requirements to be smart inverters. SolarEdge single-phase smart inverters are Rule 21 ready and support 12 advanced inverter features. “The SolarEdge single-phase inverters are the first inverters we have confirmed to meet the UL 1741 SA draft requirements,” stated Sunny Rai, Vice President of Renewable Energy at Intertek. “Intertek is proud to work with leading companies like SolarEdge to advance the PV industry through smart inverter functionality, which supports improved grid resiliency and enables more PV integration.” SolarEdge’s smart inverters now offers advanced inverter functions to the mainland US Market and have already brought functionality similar to Rule 21 to markets such as Germany, Italy, England, Australia, Hawaii, and Japan. “With some of the highest PV penetration in the United States, Hawaii is increasingly looking to smart inverters for grid management solutions,” said Research Engineer Andy Hoke of the Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). “To meet this growing challenge, NREL worked with SolarEdge to test their products as part of Hawaiian Electric’s advanced inverter testing program.” By meeting the advanced inverter requirements, SolarEdge’s optimized inverters enable utilities to build in higher levels of PV solar generation. SolarEdge inverters that meet this requirement will be installed with the label of “Grid Support Utility Interactive Inverter” and will provide smart inverter features to residential PV system owners. “With PV inverters taking on an expanded role in energy management, they are continually acting as the solar energy system’s brain by controlling monitoring, storage, communications, and smart grid interactions,” stated Lior Handelsman, VP Marketing and Product Strategy of SolarEdge. “Meeting this smart inverter requirement continues our leadership in developing next generation technology and in advancing PV system’s grid interaction to further the implementation and integration of solar energy."

Ghasemi A.,Research Engineer
AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper presents the derivation and implementation of a new family of high-resolution compact schemes and implicit Picard-like iterative algorithms for solving stiff nonlinear system of ODEs. We first derive compact finite difference schemes for integration which can be regarded as the missing part of Lele's work(J. Comp. Physics, 103, pp. 16-42.). In addition to the interior scheme, proper discretization for points near boundaries is obtained. Near boundary schemes are tabulated based on the order of accuracy and the location where scheme is used. Spectral analysis is performed and a general relation for the modified wave number is obtained. In addition to theoretical analysis of the order of accuracy, numerical studies are performed and the results are compared to other integrators including trapezoidal, Riemann series, and the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Grid refinement study reveals competitive convergence of compact schemes for integration. In the second part of the paper, we proceed to reformulate the classic Picard iteration theory in the discretized form using the developed compact schemes. An interesting convergence condition is obtained. A rigorous mathematical analysis is performed to prove that the convergence of the algorithm is exponential. Suitable Ad-hoc iteration criteria is added to accelerate the convergence while preserving the efficiency. This heuristic intervalbased iterative approach is implemented for a number of famous benchmarks to observe the overall performance of the solution strategy. In the concluding section, the developed methodology is applied to a practical SixDof simulation of a tail-controlled path-tracking missile with semi-active homing guidance and PI controllers for adjusting the line of sight. The missile dynamics is fully treated using twelve equations of motions in the term of Euler angles. Aerodynamic coefficients (static, dynamic, contributions by tail fins) are formulated in the Jacobian form and are estimated using first order finite-difference estimation of data computed by Missile DATCOM code. Further CFD validation stages are accomplished. The numerical simulation is performed using Dormand-Prince pair (MATLAB popular ode45 function) and results are compared to the current method. Preliminary results shows that, with our implementation, the application of compact Picard schemes lead to 37.7 percent increase in the relative speed up. © 2010 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

Viviani A.,The Second University of Naples | Pezzella G.,Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali | Pezzella G.,Research Engineer
Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets | Year: 2010

This paper deals with aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic studies carried out to design a capsule vehicle suitable for the recovery of crew members from the International Space Station and/or from exploration missions to the moon or Mars. An integrated design tool called ENTRY is used to support vehicle reentry analysis and computational fluid dynamics design activities. A possible low-Earth-orbit reentry scenario, with the associated aeroheating environment, is generated and then analyzed. Several Euler and Navier-Stokes computations are performed to simulate the flowfleld past the vehicle, for both perfect-gas and nonequilibrium reacting-gas models for the air. Numerical results and their comparison with flight data and wind-tunnel data are presented. An analysis of flowflelds, obtained from numerical computations, is provided by means of flight forces and moments coefficients. Experimentally measured surface pressure distributions and aerodynamic coefficients compare rather well with numerical results.

Reynier P.,Research Engineer
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2013

During a planetary entry, the decomposition of the thermal protection system material resin by the pyrolysis process produces strong blowing gases that are injected into the boundary layer. Induced by the blowing gas, the blockage phenomenon has a strong effect on the level of heat-fluxes. For some entries, such as Earth super-orbital re-entries characteristic of sample return missions, blockage is one of the key issues that have to be addressed. Additionally, this phenomenon is strongly linked to turbulence and to the porous aspects of the ablative material. Here, experimental, numerical and flight data available for different missions, involving high level of heat-.uxes, are gathered and discussed. The models for convective blockage found in the literature have been reviewed in order to select a generic way to estimate this phenomenon. It appears from this study that the convective blockage is still not fully understood and that there is no established approach for its accurate modelling since most of the existing correlations possess a high degree of empiricism. & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

There is an increasing amount of sustainably generated electricity in the form of wind and solar power, but it is not available whenever we want it. Large-scale electricity storage facilities are therefore needed, both for short-term (day and night) and long-term (weekly or seasonal) storage. Batteries are best for short-term storage, whereas artificially produced fuels such as hydrogen are most suitable for long-term energy storage. 'Electricity and hydrogen have always been regarded as two separate, even competing, solutions for energy storage,' said Mulder. 'With the battolyser we have the first integrated battery electrolysis system, which can store and supply electricity very efficiently as a battery, and when the battery is full, it automatically starts splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using electrolysis. By combining battery technology with electrolysis, we achieve an outstanding overall efficiency of up to 90 percent. The battolyser has also been found to be stable, both in battery and electrolysis mode, even under long, intensive charging, discharging and hydrogen production.' How does it work? he battolyser is based on the 'nickel-iron battery', a type promoted in the twentieth century particularly by Thomas Edison. Mulder commented, 'It's a very robust battery. Original examples are still working. Also, the raw materials are cheap and obtainable anywhere.' While the battery is charging, the electrodes produce two materials (NiOOH and reduced Fe), which are familiar in the world of electrolysis as a catalyst for the chemical reaction that produces hydrogen and oxygen. Thus, the electrodes, in their charged state, enable water to be electrolysed. The fact that nickel-iron batteries also produce hydrogen gas while charging was always regarded as a drawback, explained Mulder, and that was one of the reasons why other types of battery were ultimately more successful. 'With the battery world and the hydrogen world (solar fuels) in competition and not learning much from each other, no-one has ever tried to combine the two and see whether it would be worthwhile – despite the fact that we need both battery storage and fuels.' Mulder therefore built an initial brick-sized prototype with Bernhard Weninger, a student of his. 'It worked straight away. As soon as the battery approached full charge, it started producing hydrogen,' said Mulder. 'In simple terms we are taking advantage of what nature does automatically. We're making smart use of the materials' natural properties without fighting against them.' The unique feature of the nickel-iron system is that the electricity storage and the hydrogen production are both very efficient, so the system is a good way of handling the variability in power availability and prices. Mulder commented, 'If there's plenty of power and the price is low, we store it; if there's even more cheap power, we make hydrogen. And if there's not enough power, making the price high, we feed power back.' Thus the battolyser is effectively in service the whole time, supplying two functions for the price of one. The hydrogen gas produced can subsequently be used as fuel for fuel cells or gas-fired power stations or as a raw material for the chemical industry, for example for the production of ammonia. The next steps involve research into further improvements in efficiency and scaling up what we already have. The Technology Foundation STW has awarded funding for the research programme, and various companies are investing in the research. As John Nijenhuis, TU Delft's Technology Transfer Officer, pointed out, 'The battolyser needs to be scaled up to the size of a shipping container to prove that the technology is also suitable at the scale of the power produced by a large wind turbine.' The aim is to have the large battolyser ready and tested within eighteen months. Research Engineer Yasmina Bennani of Proton Ventures, an engineering consultancy specialising in ammonia production, storage and transport added, 'Hydrogen is our raw material, so we are very interested in ways of producing green hydrogen. The battolyser is unique in that it is also a battery – a good combination, which is particularly efficient for us.' Technology Coordinator Geert Laagland of the electricity utility Nuon envisages using the ammonia produced from sustainable hydrogen as the future fuel for the modern Magnum power station at Eemshaven. 'If there is not enough wind and solar power, we can use the ammonia to supply clean power on a large scale immediately. Nuon is a member of the STW user group. We're very curious about cost price, of course, but also flexibility. How quickly can you switch over?' Large-scale consumption of green electricity will only increase 'What a lot of people don't realise is that we're not only switching to green electricity but we're also going to use far more of it,' stressed Mulder. ''Households are switching away from gas, cars are becoming electric, and by 2050 industry will be carbon neutral. Lots of processes are far more efficient when electrically powered. Electric cars and heating, for instance, could use as much as 80 percent less kWh of energy compared with petrol and gas. On top of this, more and more sustainable energy sources are electrical. We shall therefore be using three to five times more electricity than at present,' estimated Mulder, and at the same time we shall be saving energy (currently only 13 percent of all energy is used in the form of electricity). To achieve this sustainability and improvement in efficiency, however, power needs to be available throughout the year. 'The battolyser provides us with an efficient, cheap, large-scale, robust way of storing electricity that can be switched back and forth between electricity and hydrogen as often as is needed. Thus, the battolyser is the first to bring together naturally the electricity storage infrastructure and the hydrogen gas production infrastructure.' More information: F. M. Mulder et al. Efficient electricity storage with the battolyser, an integrated Ni-Fe battery and electrolyser, Energy Environ. Sci. (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02923J

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