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Post Falls, ID, United States

Scharenbroch B.C.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point | Scharenbroch B.C.,Research Dep | Morgenroth J.,University of Canterbury | Maule B.,Northern Illinois University
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2016

Water movement between soil and the atmosphere is restricted by hardscapes in the urban environment. Some green infrastructure is intended to increase infiltration and storage of water, thus decreasing runoff and discharge of urban stormwater. Bioswales are a critical component of a water-sensitive urban design (or a low-impact urban design), and incorporation of trees into these green infrastructural components is believed to be a novel way to return stored water to the atmosphere via transpiration. This research was conducted in The Morton Arboretum's main parking lot, which is one of the first and largest green infrastructure installations in the midwestern United States. The parking lot is constructed of permeable pavers and tree bioswales. Trees in bioswales were evaluated for growth and condition and for their effects on water cycling via transpiration. Our data indicate that trees in bioswales accounted for 46 to 72% of total water outputs via transpiration, thereby reducing runoff and discharge from the parking lot. By evaluating the stomatal conductance, diameter growth, and condition of a variety of tree species in these bioswales, we found that not all species are equally suited for bioswales and that not all are equivalent in their transpiration and growth rates, thereby contributing differentially to the functional capacity of bioswales. We conclude that species with high stomatal conductance and large mature form are likely to contribute best to bioswale function. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. Source


Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is typically grown in multiple-cultivar blends for golf-course, sports-field, lawn, and landscape surfaces. This article describes the breeding and development of five cultivars, all sharing the common trait of tolerance to low mowing heights. 'Awesome' (Reg. No. CV-96, PI 632299), 'Blue Velvet' (Reg. No. CV-98, PI 635049), 'Courtyard' (Reg. No. CV-97, PI 635048), 'Ginney'(Reg. No. CV-99, PI 634980), and 'Perfection' (Reg. No. CV-95, PI 632298) are seed-propagated, single-clone, apomictic cultivars with minor, but measurable, differences in morphology. Awesome, Blue Velvet, Courtyard, and Perfection were developed from a hybrid cross between 'Limousine' and 'Midnight' Kentucky bluegrass. Ginney was developed from a hybrid cross between 'Julia' and Limousine. All five cultivars are classified as late in reproductive maturity. They are resistant to dollar spot (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett), warmweather brown patch (caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn), and summer patch (caused by Magnaporthe poae Landschoot & Jackson). Awesome, Blue Velvet, Courtyard, Ginney, and Perfection are recommended for golf-course tees, fairways, and roughs and for lawns, parks, and sports turf, in full sun or partial shade, and in areas where Kentucky bluegrass is well adapted for turf. They are compatible in blends and mixtures with other cool-season turfgrasses at mowing heights as low as 13 mm. © Crop Science Society of America. Source


Scharenbroch B.C.,Research Dep | Meza E.N.,Research Dep | Catania M.,Research Dep | Fite K.,Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2013

Urban soil quality is often degraded and a challenging substrate for trees. This study was conducted to assess the impacts of biochar (BC), biosolids (BS), wood chips (WC), compost (COM), aerated compost tea (ACT), and a nitrogen plus potassium fertilizer (NK) for improving three typical urban soils and tree sapling growth. Across the three soil types, the most significant changes in soil properties were observed with BS and BC. Biosolids decreased soil pH and increased available N, N mineralization, and microbial respiration. Biochar increased total organic C. Increases in microbial respiration were also observed with NK, COM, and WC in only the sand soil. Leachate concentrations of dissolved organic C were greater with BS and COM, but nitrate in leachates did not differ among the treatments. The greatest and most significant increases in Acer saccharum and Gleditsia triacanthos growth were found with BS and BC. Tree growth was modeled from plant-available N and microbial respiration. The N content in the treatments appeared to be a strong determinant of tree growth for all treatments except BC. Nitrogen fertilizer, COM, and WC are the most common urban soil amendments and mulches in use today. This study provides evidence that BS and BC are acceptable, and possibly preferred, alternatives for improving urban soil quality and tree growth. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. Source

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