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Ali S.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Singh R.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Sethy B.K.,Research Complex for NEH Region
Applied Engineering in Agriculture | Year: 2015

Application of a dynamic potential groundwater recharge simulation (DPGRS) model for predicting potential groundwater recharge from small ponds is demonstrated. The DPGRS model includes rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow, and depth of ponding as external inputs. The model also considered saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of pond's bed material as its parameters. The DPGRS model is successfully applied with 3 years (2006-2008) field data from two small recharge ponds located over a watershed in a semi-arid region of India. Response of the DPGRS model is found promising for simulating potential recharge from small recharge ponds. Analyzed results showed that on average 83.0% to 90.2% of accumulated runoffs in the selected ponds contributed to artificial recharge into aquifer underneath ponds. Evaporation losses varied from 7.7% to 9.2% of stored runoffs. Surplus flows from the ponds and stored runoffs in ponds at the end of simulation periods ranged, respectively, from 0 to 8.3%; and 0.6% to 0.8%. The predictions of the DPGRS model are found to be comparable to the rigorous numerical solution of the Richards model (HYDRUS-1D). These results are, however, site specific and may vary with hydro-climatic condition of location, size of recharge pond, and pond's bed soil parameters. An additional calibration and validation of the DPGRS model with field observed data in varied climatic and hydrological conditions would be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the model. © 2015 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Singh A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh R.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Singh A.K.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra | Singh V.K.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra | And 5 more authors.
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2014

Sustainability of organic farming depends on the organic inputs. As such, other than a few fertilizers and plant protection measures, there have been scanty resources available to farmers for continuing organic farming. Some farmers in India have evolved traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) based location specific practices to sustain their agroecosystems and continue organic farming. In this paper, an attempt has been made to explore TEK-led adaptations in bio-mulching to grow ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as a crop and to test empirically the best practices including identifying the best leaves and local bio-mulching materials applied by farmers. The role of TEK-led adaptive practices for controlling moisture loss, temperature regulation, reduced disease incidence, quality yield and economic aspects of ginger production are examined. The study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages of Champawat district, Uttrakhand (Western Himalaya). Data was collected using open ended questions in association with participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. Results indicated that farmers have developed major TEK led adaptive practices for organic ginger production after seeding in the field, namely using the leaves of oak (Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus.), chir pine needles (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.), local mixed grasses (e.g., Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov, [Cymbopogon distans (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson], [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. syn. Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv], [Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult]. shrubs [Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob.] syn. Eupatorium odoratum L.) and animal wastage. This last consists of mixed oak, bhimal (Grewia optiva J.R. Drumm ex Burret), kharik (Celtis australis L.), timala (Ficus auriculata Lour.syn. Ficus roxburghii Stud.) leaves, grasses, paddy and finger millet straw and cow dung and urine. Women were observed to be using more of these TEK led adaptive practices than men. Empirical field studies carried out on TEK led adaptive practices under rain-fed agro ecosystems of farmers revealed significant results including longer rhizome length (up to 6.50 cm), higher number of rhizomes per plant (35.30), higher ginger yield (211.50 q/ha), higher B:C (benefit to cost) ratio (1:2.18) and lower percentage of disease (bacterial wilt; soft rot and leaf spot) incidence (17.5%) in oak leaf mulch. Soil moisture conservation (44.75%) and optimum soil temperature (24.800C) were recorded as significantly better under the oak leaves for using bio-mulching as compared to all other TEK led bio-mulching practices for organic ginger production. The oak leaves used as bio-mulch in organic ginger increased yield by 43% and net returns by 61% as compared to no mulching (control). It is concluded that, under temperate climate and rain-fed agro ecosystems, TEK led adaptive practices by farmers in growing ginger are economically feasible, energy efficient and ecologically sustainable, through the addition of soil organic carbon. However, there is need for scientific and institutional promotion in participatory modes for such practices, with a provision for integrating these practices with science and policy on climate adaptation.

Choudhary V.K.,Research Complex for NEH Region | Suresh Kumar P.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Bhagawati R.,Research Complex for NEH Region
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

Better root growth helps the plant for more uptakes of nutrient and water and positively influence the growth and yield attributes. Tillage alters the physicochemical and biological properties of soil and provides the congenial condition for better growth of maize. Four different till system, viz., conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (ZT), raised bed (RB) and ridge and furrow (RF) were tried with two mulch viz. no mulch (NM) and paddy straw mulch (PSM at 4.0tha-1). RF recorded 18.0% higher seed yield followed by RB (14.5%) and CT (7.5%) over ZT. However, stover yield was 10.1, 8.6 and 5.1% respectively higher for RF, RB and CT over ZT. Mulches also favoured the soil against degradative force and conserved the soil moisture and maintained the soil temperature. Grain and stover yield were 11.1 and 6.5% respectively higher with PSM over NM. Root length, root dry weight and root volume were higher on RF followed by RB over ZT. However, root numbers was higher on ZT but comparable to CT. Root density did not differ with different types of tillage. Similarly, PSM recorded all the root attributes better than NM. Maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), water filled pore space (WFPS) and water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point were higher on RF followed by RB over ZT. Similarly, bulk density of soil at different soil depths were lower in RF followed by RB. Soil temperature was maintained on PSM and it was relatively hotter at early morning (8.00h) and relatively cooler during mid day (12.00h) and evening (16.00h) over NM. Soil organic carbon (SOC) changed with tillage and higher SOC was recorded on ZT at top 0-10 and 10-20cm soil depths but below 20cm there was no significant difference. Consequently, all the physical and chemical parameters were better with PSM over NM. The measured growth and yield attributes of maize depended on soil properties like bulk density, porosity, water potential, texture, aggregation and soil organic carbon. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Saha R.,Research Complex for NEH Region | Saha R.,Indian Institute of Science
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to evaluate various empirical methods of estimating evapotranspiration to predict water requirement of garden pea (Pisum sativum. L.) under mid hill altitudinal conditions of hilly agro-ecosystem of Meghalaya. Field experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 at ICAR farm located at Umiam, Meghalaya. Various empirical equations were evaluated based on the meteorological data. Study revealed that water requirement of garden pea estimated by Hargreaves method was in close agreement (4.4% deviation) with the actual water requirement (489.1 mm), followed by Blaney-Criddle method and FAO Pan method with deviations of-90.0 (-22.6%) and-175.0 mm (-55.7%), respectively. The other empirical methods predicted high water requirement than the actual value. Hence, Hargreaves method could be considered the most suitable among evaluated methods for predicting water requirement of pea in hill agro-ecosystem of Meghalaya.

Choudhary V.K.,Research Complex for NEH Region | Alone R.A.,Research Complex for NEH Region | Singh D.,Research Complex for NEH Region | Bhagawati R.,Research Complex for NEH Region
Range Management and Agroforestry | Year: 2012

Growth and yield performance of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) was compared under different row proportions and four tree species predominantly found in North Eastern Region. The growth and yield were higher with Morus alba followed by Terminalia myriocarpa. Plant height increased with increasing row proportions, whereas, number of tillers/plant, clump circumference, leaf length and leaf width were significantly decreased. Plant height, clump circumference and number of leaves/plant were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in three row proportions. Guinea grass harvested under Morus alba showed higher fodder yield (34.7%), actual fodder sticks (50.0%) and above ground biomass (38.6%) than other tree species. Similarly, three row proportions had 120.5, 149.4 and 127.9% respectively higher yield than one row. Correspondingly, Morus alba had higher soil moisture during both the season, but Michelia oblonga registered higher solar radiation transmission.

Choudhary V.K.,Research Complex for NEH Region
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2015

Soil management can notably influence crop production under rainfed farming; however, improper soil management is one of the key factors threatening sustainability. The objective of this 3 years’ study was to evaluate the performance of two types of tillage: conventional tillage (CT) and zero tillage (ZT) systems with four mulches; paddy straw mulch (PSM), maize stubble (MS), Imperata cylendrica (thatch grass, TG) and no mulch (NM) on yield and water use of pea (Pisum sativum) and physico-chemical properties of soil. CT and PSM have registered 11.1% and 36.1% higher pod yield, 10.0% and 40% improvement of water use efficiency (WUE) and 9.7% and 49.2% better harvest monetary benefit (HMB) over ZT and NM, respectively. Soil moisture content (SMC) was higher with ZT than CT. Placement of mulch has considerably higher SMC on upper soil layer over NM, but at deeper depth, there was no such evidence. The soil organic carbon (SOC) was considerably improved by 4.1% with ZT than CT, whereas, MS improved SOC by 1.9% than NM. The findings clearly suggested that CT along with PSM registered improvement in pod yield, WUE and HMB, but ZT and MS improved SOC at different soil depths and responded to carbon stock management. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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