Saeed S.,Research Complex |
Rashid N.,Research Complex |
Hussain R.,National Engineering and Scientific Commission |
Wong W.-T.,University of Hong Kong
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012
The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C12H24N +·C7H3N2O6 -, contains two cations and two anions. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by N - H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a 12-membered ring with an R44(12) graph-set motif. The center of this 12-membered ring coincides with an inversion centre. π-π stacking is observed between parallel benzene rings [centroid-centriod distance = 3.771 (2) Å]. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography.
Saeed S.,Research Complex |
Rashid N.,Research Complex |
Hussain R.,National Engineering and Scientific Commission |
Wong W.-T.,University of Hong Kong
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012
The title molecule, C 16H 13N 3O 7, is slightly twisted, with the dihedral angle between the two benzene ring planes being 17.4(1)°. An intramolecular N-H···O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, weak C-H···O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains along the b axis.
Chen B.,University College London |
Zhang F.,University of Sheffield |
Berenguer F.,University College London |
Bean R.J.,University College London |
And 8 more authors.
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2011
We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.
News Article | August 22, 2016
Why the Universe is filled with matter, rather than antimatter, is one of physics’ greatest mysteries. An experiment in Japan has now glimpsed a possible explanation: subatomic particles called neutrinos might behave differently in their matter and antimatter forms. The disparity, announced at the International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) in Chicago, Illinois, on 6 August, may turn out not to be real: more data will need to be gathered to be sure. “You would probably bet that this difference exists in neutrinos, but it would be premature to state that we can see it,” says André de Gouvêa, a theoretical physicist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. Even so, the announcement is likely to increase excitement over studies of neutrinos, the abundant but elusive particles that seem increasingly key to solving all kinds of puzzles in physics. In the 1990s, neutrinos were found1, 2 to defy the predictions of physics' standard model — a successful, but incomplete, description of nature — by virtue of possessing mass, rather than being entirely massless. Since then, neutrino experiments have sprouted up around the world, and researchers are realizing that they should look to these particles for new explanations in physics, says Keith Matera, a physicist on a US-based neutrino experiment called NOvA at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. “They are the crack in the standard model,” he says. The excess of matter over antimatter in our Universe is extraordinary, because if the mirror-image particles were produced in equal quantities after the Big Bang, they would have annihilated each other on contact, leaving nothing but radiation. Physicists have observed differences in the behaviour of some matter particles and antimatter particles, such as kaons and B mesons — but not enough to explain the dominance of matter in the Universe. One answer might be that super-heavy particles decayed in the early Universe in an asymmetric fashion and produced more matter than antimatter. Some physicists think that a heavyweight relative of the neutrino could be the culprit. Under this theory, if neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently today, then a similar imbalance in their ancient counterparts could explain the overabundance of matter. To test this, researchers on the Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) experiment in Japan looked for differences in the way that matter and antimatter neutrinos oscillate between three types, or ‘flavours’, as they travel (see 'Changing flavours'). They shot beams of neutrinos of one flavour — muon neutrinos — from the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex in the seaside village of Tokaimura to the Super-Kamiokande detector, an underground steel tank more than 295 kilometres away and filled with 50,000 tons of water. The team counted how many electron neutrinos appeared — a sign that the muon neutrinos had morphed into a different flavour along the journey. They then repeated the experiment with a beam of muon antineutrinos. The two beams behaved slightly differently, said Konosuke Iwamoto, a physicist at the University of Rochester, New York, during his presentation at ICHEP. The team expected that if there were no difference between matter and antimatter, their detector would have, after almost 6 years of experiments, seen 24 electron neutrinos and — because antimatter is harder to produce and detect — 7 electron antineutrinos. Instead, they saw 32 neutrinos and 4 antineutrinos arrive in their detector. “Without getting into complicated mathematics, this suggests that matter and antimatter do not oscillate in the same way,” says Chang Kee Jung, a physicist at Stony Brook University in New York and a member of the T2K experiment. Preliminary findings from the T2K and NOvA experiments had hinted at the same idea. But the observations so far could be a chance fluctuation; there is a 1 in 20 chance (or in statistical terms, about 2 sigma) of seeing these results if neutrinos and antineutrinos behave identically, points out Jung. It will take much more data to confirm the signal. By the end of its current run in 2021, the T2K experiment should have five times more data than it has today. But the team will need 13 times more data to push statistical confidence in the finding to 3 sigma, a statistical threshold beyond which most physicists would accept the data as reasonable — but not completely convincing — evidence of the asymmetry. The T2K team has proposed extending its experiment to 2025 in order to gather the necessary data. But it is trying to speed up data-gathering by combining results with those from NOvA, which sends a neutrino beam 810 kilometres from Fermilab to a mine in northern Minnesota. NOvA has been shooting neutrino beams; it will switch to antineutrino beams in 2017. The two groups have agreed to produce a joint analysis and could together reach 3 sigma by around 2020, says Jung. Reaching the statistical certainty needed to announce a formal discovery — 5 sigma — could require a new generation of neutrino experiments already being planned around the world. Researchers from the NOvA experiment presented another exciting but preliminary finding at the ICHEP, also deduced from the study of the rate at which muon neutrinos switch to electron neutrinos: a hint at a resolution for which of neutrinos’ three different mass states is the heaviest.They found their results slightly favour a normal mass order, rather than an inverted one. Knowing which it is would help scientists to decide between rival theories about how the four forces of nature unite as a single force at high energies, such as during the Big Bang. Physicists are racking up discoveries about neutrinos on an almost annual basis, says de Gouvêa: “For the timescales of particle physics, this is changing really, really quickly.”
News Article | October 26, 2015
In a study published in Nature Communications, scientists from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science in Japan have found a way to manipulate skyrmions – tiny nanometer-sized magnetic vortices found at the surface of magnetic materials – using mechanical energy. Skyrmions have been widely touted as providing the basis for new high-density memory devices because of their small size and relative stability. However, it has proven difficult to create, delete and move them, and so skyrmion-based devices are not yet competitive with other next-generation memory devices based on electron spin. According to Yoichi Nii of the Emergent Device Research Team, the first author of the study: "We began from the simple question of whether it would be practical to turn skyrmions on and off with mechanical force, and wondered how much force would be required. We imagined it would be substantial." The group set out to answer this question using a specially-designed stress probe that could apply mechanical stress to the surface of manganese silicide, a ‘chiral magnetic’ known to host skyrmions, cooled to very low temperatures. They found, to their surprise, that the force required to create and delete skyrmions was quite low, less than ten nanonewtons per skyrmion, comparable to the pressure exerted by the tip of a conventional pencil when writing in a notebook. A force applied perpendicular to the magnetic field led to the creation of skyrmions, while a force applied parallel to the field deleted the skyrmions, making it possible to turn them on and off mechanically. “This means,” says Yoshihiro Iwasa, leader of the Emergent Device Research Team, “that we may be able to fabricate devices in which skyrmions are created and deleted by a small mechanical force. This could be an inexpensive and low-energy-consuming way to create new low-cost memory devices and open the road to skymionics.” One drawback of the current approach is that it requires cooling the magnet to very low temperatures for the system to work. According to Nii, they plan to continue experiments with a variety of materials to try to identify ones that host skyrmions that can be manipulated mechanically at higher temperatures. The work was done in collaboration with the University of Tokyo, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex and the Comprehensive Research Organization for Science and Society. This story is adapted from material from RIKEN, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.
News Article | February 15, 2017
OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Feb. 14, 2017) - Media representatives are invited to join the Honourable Kirsty Duncan, Minister of Science, as she makes an important announcement in support of scientific research and innovation. This support will focus on collaborations between academia and businesses, securing a more innovative economy and growth for Canada's middle class. After the announcement, Minister Duncan will tour a lab at the University of Ottawa Advanced Research Complex. Media are invited to join the tour. Minister Duncan will be available for questions from the media following the announcement.
News Article | November 30, 2016
The Institute for Veterans and Military Families (IVMF) has experienced exponential growth since its inception on the campus of Syracuse University in 2011. The organization, with support from founding partner JPMorgan Chase & Co. and a host of other corporate, philanthropic, government and individual supporters, has flourished from six employees to more than 70 and most notably, from 65 veterans served in its first year to over 60,000 transitioning service members, veterans, and military families over the past five years. The announcement comes on the heels of Syracuse being named the #1 private school in the nation, and #3 overall, for service members, military veterans and their families. As it celebrates its 5th anniversary, the IVMF takes its support for the veteran community to a higher level through new avenues for open research and data sharing and further collaboration across sectors in an intensified effort to better equip millions of veterans, and the public, private or nonprofit entities that support them, with improved access to resources post-service. This announcement follows the gift of a $5 million-dollar grant to the IVMF from the Walmart Foundation to support its AmericaServes initiative, the largest grant the Walmart Foundation has ever given to a veterans support organization. “Syracuse University has a long history of welcoming our veterans from the post-World War II era to today,” says Chancellor Kent Syverud. “The commitment of the IVMF to grow and expand its programs will further support our efforts to be the best place in America for veterans and their families.” “Our goal has been and continues to be advancing the post-service lives of those who have worn our nation’s uniform and their families,” said Vice Chancellor of Strategic Initiatives and Innovation and IVMF Founder, Mike Haynie. “The single, greatest opportunity we have to create even more impact going forward is through connecting veterans and their families to the wealth of resources available to them.” With the nation’s focus on veterans, and veterans’ issues, deepens initiatives, like those of the IVMF, will be even more critical in the coming months and years as new policies and programs to support veterans take shape. In collaboration with Deloitte, the IVMF is releasing the Veterans Strategic Analysis and Research Tool (V-START). The data visualization tool is part of the Institute’s newly launched website which features a fresh design and user-friendly interface. V-START uses dashboards that summarize publicly available data through dynamic infographics and charts. It allows users to easily search, analyze, and compare extensive demographic, educational and employment data down to the county level. IVMF and Deloitte developed the tool for multiple audiences with the capability for them to add in their own program-specific data. Government agencies can look at levels of support for veterans and identify gaps and areas where service delivery can be improved. Employers can apply the data to boost their recruitment strategies by geography as well as for improving retention. Transitioning service members preparing for their future can identify communities with strong services, education or employment opportunities. For nonprofit institutions like IVMF, V-START can inform program development and delivery. Rapid Expansion of Programs to Serve and Train More Veterans Like the organization itself, IVMF’s programs have also grown in size and impact. AmericaServes, aided by the $5 million grant from the Walmart Foundation, assists veterans and their families by empowering local communities to build connected networks of human services providers in order to deliver better care faster. Through increased accuracy, speed and accountability the initiative is producing strong results in areas like North Carolina where the NCServes network has reached 300 percent more veterans and their families in the first year and delivered a 500 percent increase in closed casework. Building on momentum, the network has expanded to communities in New York, North Carolina and South Carolina, Virginia, Washington State, and launching in November, San Antonio, Texas. Through entrepreneurship training programs including Boots to Business (B2B), Boots to Business Reboot, Entrepreneurship Bootcamp for Veterans with Disabilities (EBV) and Veteran Women Igniting the Spirit of Entrepreneurship (V-WISE), provided in partnership with the United States Small Business Administration, the IVMF has trained over 50,000 potential and practicing veteran and military spouse entrepreneurs. The 3,300 graduates of the EBV and V-WISE programs alone have generated more than $329 million in revenue. Employment and career preparation are also available through their newest initiative, Onward to Opportunity (O2O). The program offers industry-specific training, certifications and interview matching services to transitioning service members and spouses on U.S. military bases. The program will be offered on 12 bases by the end of June 2017 and 18 bases by June 2018. O2O compliments the IVMF’s existing career preparation program, the Veterans Career Transition Program which was launched in partnership with JPMorgan Chase & Co. IVMF’s latest collaboration is with LinkedIn on a campaign called “Honor Our Future,” asking the country to rethink how it honors veterans by investing in their career success post-service. A Space to Come Together: the National Veterans Research Complex In its efforts to be a strong national and local community partner, the IVMF is creating convening space in the new National Veterans Research Complex at Syracuse University. The complex will be a first-of-its-kind facility dedicated to servicing the nation’s veterans and military-connected families through advancing academic research, programs and community engagement. The project is underway, and completion is set for spring/summer 2019. For more information and to track the progress of the project visit nvrc.syr.edu. The IVMF commemorated its milestone anniversary with a series of events on the campus of Syracuse University. To view event photos and stay updated on the latest news and information, follow the IVMF on Facebook. For more information on IVMF and its programs visit ivmf.syracuse.edu. About the Institute for Veterans and Military Families (IVMF) at Syracuse University The Institute for Veterans and Military Families is the first interdisciplinary national institute in higher education focused on the social, economic, education and policy issues impacting veterans and their families post-service. The Institute is supported by a world-class advisory board and public and private partners committed to advancing the post-service lives of America’s service members, veterans and their families. The IVMF and its professional staff deliver class-leading programs in career, vocational and entrepreneurship education and training. The IVMF also conducts actionable research, provides policy analysis and program evaluations; coordinates comprehensive strategies; and works with communities and non-profits to enhance service. Read more at ivmf.syracuse.edu.
Xiong G.,University College London |
Moutanabbir O.,Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics |
Huang X.,University College London |
Huang X.,Argonne National Laboratory |
And 6 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011
Coherent x-ray diffraction was used to study the relaxation in single ultrathin strained silicon structures with nanoscale accuracy. The investigated structure was patterned from 20 nm thick strained silicon-on-insulator substrate with an initial biaxial tensile strain of 0.6. Two-dimensional maps of the post-patterning relaxation were obtained for single 1 1 m2 structures. We found that the relaxation is localized near the edges, which undergo a significant contraction due to the formation of free surfaces. The relaxation extent decreases exponentially towards the center with a decay length of 50 nm. Three-dimensional simulations confirmed that over-etching is needed to explain the relaxation behavior. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Miller D.C.,Research Complex
Health Services Research | Year: 2012
Objective. To determine the proportion of physician practices in the United States that currently meets medical home criteria. Data Source/Study Setting. 2007 and 2008 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Study Design. We mapped survey items to the National Committee on Quality Assurance's (NCQA's) medical home standards. After awarding points for each "passed" element, we calculated a practice's infrastructure score, dividing its cumulative total by the number of available points. We identified practices that would be recognized as a medical home (Level 1 [25-49 percent], Level 2 [50-74 percent], or Level 3 [infrastructure score ≥75 percent]) and examined characteristics associated with NCQA recognition. Results. Forty-six percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 42.5-50.2) of all practices lack sufficient medical home infrastructure. While 72.3 percent (95 percent CI, 64.0-80.7 percent) of multi-specialty groups would achieve recognition, only 49.8 percent (95 percent CI, 45.2-54.5 percent) of solo/partnership practices meet NCQA standards. Although better prepared than specialists, 40 percent of primary care practices would not qualify as a medical home under present criteria. Conclusion. Almost half of all practices fail to meet NCQA standards for medical home recognition. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Choudhary V.K.,Research Complex |
Kumar P.S.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2013
Mono-cropping is the most common farming practice followed in the North Eastern Hilly Region (NEHR) of India and farmers leave the land fallow after harvesting the main crop. The identification of suitable sequential crops is essential to increase the cropping intensity, land-use efficiency and overall productivity of the land. Therefore, a study was carried out during 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 on maize (rainy season) followed by table pea, mustard, French bean and groundnut (post rainy season). Sequence crops were imposed with paddy straw mulch at 5.0 t ha-1 and without mulch. The availability of water and moisture retention was higher (p < 0.05) on mulched plots, yield was also higher. However, recorded soil temperature was higher on mulched plots at 08.00 hours and lower at 12.00 and 16.00 hours compared with the no-mulch plots. Recorded maize equivalent yield, production efficiency, economics and total energy use and output (MJ ha-1) were higher for maize-French bean. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.