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Moset V.,Animal and Technology Research Center | Moset V.,Research Center y Tecnologia Animal | Cambra-Lopez M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Moller H.B.,University of Aarhus
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2012

Slurry acidification with sulfuric acid is a commonly used measure to reduce ammonia emissions from animal waste in Denmark. However, high sulfate content is an inhibiting factor in anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the sulfate concentration thresholds for inhibition of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of animal slurry. We conducted a batch assay for 114 days using two types of slurry (pig and cattle) and ten different sulfate concentrations per type of slurry (0 to 5000 mg SO4 2- L-1). Added sulfate concentrations higher than 2500 mg SO4 2- L-1 in pig slurry and higher than 2000 mg SO4 2- L-1 in cattle slurry caused reductions of more than 40% in methane production and accumulations of volatile fatty acids throughout the study. The biogas produced contained large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (3.2% in pig slurry and 1.9% in cattle slurry) with concentrations peaking in the first 20 days and subsequently decreasing. Waste properties can affect the inhibitory threshold of the sulfate in anaerobic digestion. Our results provide specific sulfate inhibition thresholds for pig and cattle slurries, which differ from other sulfate-rich wastewaters. © 2012 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Source

Pascual M.,Research Center y Tecnologia Animal | Soler M.D.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Cervera C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Pla M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2014

The effect of three different dietary programmes on health, growth performance and carcass and meat quality in young rabbits weaned at 28. d was studied using a diet (F) rich in highly-digestible fibre, from 17 to 63. d of age (group FF); using diet F from 17 to 42. d followed by a diet poor in highly-digestible fibre and rich in starch and fat (S) until 63. d (group FS); and using a standard diet C with intermediate highly-digestible fibre and starch content, containing 100. ppm of zinc-bacitracin, from 17 to 63. d (group CC). A highly-digestible fibre diet could be useful to reduce the incidence of digestive disorders. However, it decreased slaughter weight (2294. g in FF vs. 2406. g in CC; P<0.05) and carcass and meat traits, e.g. dressing out percentage (55.4% in FF vs. 56.7% in CC; P<0.05), meat to bone ratio (5.73 in FF vs. 5.94 in CC; P<0.05) and hind leg fat content (3.81% in FF vs. 4.71% in CC; P<0.05) at 63. d of age. Switching to a high starch and fat diet at late fattening improved chilled carcass weight at 63. d of age (1339. g in FS vs. 1263. g in FF; P<0.05) mainly through the promotion of liver development (7.53% in group FS vs. 6.47% in group FF; P<0.05) and fat deposition (3.89% in FS vs. 2.63% in FF; P<0.05), and increased hind leg fat content (+1.2 points of fat percentage; P<0.05). However, this switch increased health risk (35.1% in FS vs. 17.6% in FF; P<0.05). © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Gomez-Fernandez J.,Leon Institute of Technology | Horcajada S.,Technical University of Madrid | Tomas C.,Research Center y Tecnologia Animal | Gomez-Izquierdo E.,Leon Institute of Technology | de Mercado E.,Leon Institute of Technology
ITEA Informacion Tecnica Economica Agraria | Year: 2013

A total of 192 Iberian female pigs (Duroc x Iberian), with 110 days old and 44.94 ± 3.41 kg, were used to test the effect of immunological castration Improvac ® (Pfizer Animal Health). The trial was conducted at the Centro de Pruebas de Porcino of Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y Léon in Segovia (Spain) The experiment was designed in randomized blocks, with 3 treatments (surgically castrated, entire female and inmunocastrated), 48 total replicates of 4 pigs each and 16 replicates per treatment. The animals were weighed individually every 15 days and it was estimated feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion. Once applied the two doses of Improvac® (60 kg and 84.2 kg) of body weight, differences between entire females and inmunocastrated became statistically significant (P < 0.05) over 100 kg, remaining the significance to 170 kg, showing the latest higher feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (21.25, 19.24 and 1.44%, respectively; P < 0.05). In relation to castrated and after application of the second dose, inmunocastrated increased feed intake (12% on average, depending on the weight considered) and daily gain (22.24%), decreasing by 7.6% feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). On the other hand, castrated feed intake is higher (8.35%), with lower daily gain (2.6%) and higher feed conversion ratio (11%) than the entire females (P < 0.05). At slaughter, the entire females showed lower carcass yield (78.02 vs. 79.14 and 78.79% for entires, castrated and inmunocastrated respectively, P < 0.05). By contrast, the weight of prime cuts parts was higher in the entire and inmunocastrated (P < 0.05). Under the our conditions, we can conclude that the immunocastration is a productive alternative advantageous to physical castration in Iberian females, recommending a separation of 10 ± 2 weeks between the application of the second dose of Improvac ® and sacrifice to obtain the maximum benefit, and also with the same pattern of application, has a more favorable conversion to commercial slaughter weights in relation to entire female. Surgical castration is the least interesting option. Source

Velazco O.R.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Agropecuaria Inia | Sanz S.C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Barber F.E.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Garcia A.V.,Research Center y Tecnologia Animal
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2013

The objective of this work is to characterize two contrasting systems of fattening pigs in Uruguay. A total of 96 pigs (average 41.7 kg) were divided into eight groups of 12 animals, representing two production systems: (IN) pigs confined in pens of 12 m2 or (OUT) kept in plots with field shelters and access to pasture. Behavioral observations were performed by scan sampling at 5-minute intervals, three times a day during weeks 6, 8, 10 and 12 of the experiment. Aggressions were also observed at the end of the experimental period. Blood samples were taken for cortisol analysis and other physiological parameters, during growth period and slaughter and meat quality characteristics were assessed after slaughter. Differences were found in carcass characteristics, wherein IN presented a higher dorsal fat. These animals presented an overall lower activity and spent less time resting, with a stable pattern throughout the day. In OUT, pigs usually rested at midday hours, more active in the morning and afternoon. The number of total reciprocal aggressions in the observation period was 4.2±3.7 for IN and 2.3±2.2 for OUT. Cortisol levels and biochemical profile did not show evidence of important problems in the animals. Welfare is not compromised in any of the systems, although higher levels of cortisol and aggressions could be indicating some stress problems in the confinement system. Meat characteristics in OUT were considered better than in IN from a nutritional point of view. ©2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source

Estelles F.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Rodriguez-Latorre A.R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Calvet S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Villagra A.,Research Center y Tecnologia Animal | Torres A.G.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2010

Carbon dioxide balance is a powerful tool for determining ventilation rates in animal buildings. Accurate values for carbon dioxide emissions from animals and the daily variation of these emissions are required to work with these balances. Traditionally, the daily variation of carbon dioxide has been related to daily patterns of animal activity. Little information is available about carbon dioxide emissions from fattening rabbits. Carbon dioxide emissions from 21 fattening rabbits were measure throughout the fattening period. Emissions from each single animal were monitored during 24 h, using a flux chamber. Ten of these rabbits were monitored by video and their activity was assessed for the 24-h periods. Results showed an average carbon dioxide emission rate per rabbit of 1.98 ± 0.72 L h-1, for an average weight of 1240 ± 412 g. An exponential relationship between animal weight and carbon dioxide emission was observed. Sinusoidal daily patterns of carbon dioxide emission and relative animal activity were determined and described using equations. A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emission and relative animal activity was observed, although differences in the amplitude of the curves were found: 16% of the average value for carbon dioxide emission and 41% for relative activity. © 2010 IAgrE. Source

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