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Serrano E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Serrano E.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | Cornu A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kondjoyan N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2011

The development of analytical methods to verify the production system of meat products requires the identification of biomarkers that can trace the products origin, and secondly the factors that govern the deposition of these markers in animal tissue need to be defined. In this study, 2,3-octanedione, skatole and terpenes were selected as biomarkers, and their deposition was investigated in bull calves reared under three different strategies. All of the animals were reared indoors until approximately 150 days of age. They were suckled twice a day by their mothers, and both calves and cows had free access to cocksfoot hay. Then the first two groups of animals were kept indoors, suckled by their mothers twice a day and received either cocksfoot hay (HL) or freshly cut-green herbage (GL) and a limited quantity of concentrate. The third group of calves (PH) was kept on pasture with their mothers and offered concentrate ad libitum. The pasture supporting the PH animals was highly diversified, containing several terpene-rich plant species, whereas the herbage for the GL animals contained no species known to be aromatic. Perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were analysed for volatile compounds. The perirenal fat was found to be more responsive to the treatment and a more reliable substrate than the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Higher levels of 2,3-octanedione (P < 0.05) were found in PH and GL than in HL fat (6.56, 6.51 and 5.77 area arbitrary units, respectively, in perirenal fat), confirming the ability of this molecule to trace green herbage feeding. Skatole was detected in the perirenal and subcutaneous fat of all the animals. Animals receiving high concentrate level (PH group) presented lower (P < 0.05) skatole values (5.83 area arbitrary units in perirenal fat) than animals receiving low concentrate level (HL and GL groups, 6.23 and 6.71 area arbitrary units, respectively, in perirenal fat). Terpenoids, and especially sesquiterpenes, were found at higher levels and diversities in the PH than in the GL and HL animals. Two monoterpenoids allowed group discrimination considering perirenal or subcutaneous fat without distinction, whereas 11 and 5 sesquiterpenoids from perirenal and subcutaneous fat, respectively, allowed it. © The Animal Consortium 2010. Source

Garcia-Jaramillo M.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville | Redondo-Gomez S.,University of Seville | Barcia-Piedras J.M.,University of Seville | Aguilar M.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The presence of pesticides in surface and groundwater has grown considerably in the last decades as a consequence of the intensive farming activity. Several studies have shown the benefits of using organic amendments to prevent losses of pesticides from runoff or leaching. A particular soil from the Guadalquivir valley was placed in open air ponds and amended at 1 or 2% (w/w) with alperujo compost (AC), a byproduct from the olive oil industry. Tricyclazole dissipation, rice growth and microbial diversity were monitored along an entire rice growing season. An increase in the net photosynthetic rate of Oryza sativa plants grown in the ponds with AC was observed. These plants produced between 1100 and 1300 kg ha-1 more rice than plants from the unamended ponds. No significant differences were observed in tricyclazole dissipation, monitored for a month in soil, surface and drainage water, between the amended and unamended ponds. The structure and diversity of bacteria and fungi communities were also studied by the use of the polymerase chain reaction denaturing gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) from DNA extracted directly from soil samples. The banding pattern was similar for all treatments, although the density of bands varied throughout the time. Apparently, tricyclazole did not affect the structure and diversity of bacteria and fungi communities, and this was attributed to its low bioavailability. Rice cultivation under paddy field conditions may be more efficient under the effects of this compost, due to its positive effects on soil properties, rice yield, and soil microbial diversity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Romero-Gamez M.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | Suarez-Rey E.M.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | Anton A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Castilla N.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | Soriano T.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

The social demand for environmentally friendly agricultural production requires technologies that help preserve the environment under sustainable criteria whilst providing high-quality products that guarantee food safety. This study evaluates the environmental damages attributed to different alternatives for screenhouse as well as open-field cropping systems for green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during their life cycle by applying the life cycle analysis (LCA) in an inland area of the province of Granada, Spain, during two spring-autumn crop cycles (2008 and 2009). The aim of this evaluation was to select and improve the cultivation techniques, equipment, and structures by trying to minimize their impact on the surroundings and natural resources. The green bean cropping systems analysed were: a screenhouse (S), a screenhouse equipped with a misting system (SM), and a control (open-field, OF). The stages considered in the LCA study were the infrastructure and the crop cycle. The OF treatment showed the greatest environmental impact in most categories due to its lower yields. Under our experimental conditions, the misting system was justified (from the environmental standpoint) providing the yields were higher than those obtained without the misting (S). All the treatments in 2009 produced a greater impact than in 2008 due to climatic conditions that sharply reduced production. The LCA study has shown the importance of reaching a minimum yield to justify the environmental impact of different treatments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bedia J.,University of Cantabria | Busque J.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2013

Species-rich alpine grasslands with Nardus stricta are important communities for both animal production and environmental conservation in Europe. We selected two contrasting types of Nardus grasslands (mesic and wet) within a rangeland of northern Spain and measured annual above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), botanical components, forage utilization and their respective seasonal patterns, during a 5-year period. We analysed their chemical properties and recorded soil moisture and temperature in order to construct models able to explain grassland productivity. Mean annual ANPP of mesic Nardus grassland was about half (216gDMm-2year-1; ±29·8s.e.) that of the wet grassland (406g DMm-2year-1; ±54·3s.e.), with significant intra- and interannual variability. Mesic grassland, with a more important contribution of forbs and legumes over graminoids in its botanical composition, was the preferred forage source of grazing livestock and showed better chemical properties in spring and early summer. In summer and autumn, wet grassland had a higher utilization owing to its ability to maintain high biomass production. This was partially explained by soil moisture, a limiting factor of mesic grassland productivity. Our results provide new and relevant information on key aspects of species-rich alpine Nardus grasslands, potentially useful for the definition of management options for these habitats of priority conservation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Romero-Gamez M.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | Suarez-Rey E.M.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria | Soriano T.,Research Center y Formacion Agraria
European Journal of Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

One of the greatest challenges in screenhouse horticulture is the control of environmental conditions required to reduce the high vapour pressure deficits (VPD) recorded during most of the day in the summertime. This paper describes the results of the research conducted on evaluating the effect of low-pressure misting on the microclimate of a screenhouse on a green bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'Festival') over two spring-summer production cycles in south-east Spain, together with a quantification of its water use efficiency (WUE). We compared a screenhouse equipped with a low-pressure misting system (SM), with a screenhouse without a misting system (S) and with conventional open-field crops (OF). The main effect of misting was a fall in the temperature of the plant canopy and of the maximum air temperature and VPD recorded at times of highest radiation and evaporative demand, and an increase in total and commercial productivity compared to the other systems. The misting reduced the light transmission with differences of 132.9 MJ m -2 in 2008 and 155.8 MJ m -2 in 2009 with respect to the S system. WUE was highest for the S system since SM required additional water for misting (29.3 % in 2008 and 45.5 % in 2009). © Verlag Eugen Ulmer KG. Source

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