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Aguascalientes, Mexico

Chakraborti L.,Research Center y Docencia Economicas
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2016

In this paper we show that plants respond to downstream ambient water quality after controlling for permitted levels of pollution. We find if past water quality declines by one percent, plants reduce current pollution by 0.35 percent. The magnitude of this coefficient is comparable to the coefficient on permitted discharge levels i.e. regulatory stringency itself. Results are consistent with two mechanisms. First, a decline in water quality may lead to more stringent permits that would raise the cost of abatement of a plant significantly. Second, the plant is likely to be subject to increased public pressure in response to poor water quality. Indeed, as expected, the impact of water quality becomes stronger in locations with higher median household income, higher percent carpooling to work, or lower percent of manufacturing employment but surprisingly with lower median age of residents, lower percent with bachelor[U+05F3]s degree or higher percent of families with children. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lichtenberg E.,University of Maryland University College | Smith-Ramirez R.,Research Center y Docencia Economicas
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011

We examine whether subsidies for conservation on working farmland induce farmers to expand cultivation on more vulnerable land, potentially offsetting reductions in environmental spillovers, using a switching regression model with endogenous switching and censored endogenous variables applied to Maryland farm-level data. We find no indication that cost share awards are targeted toward water quality improvements. Receipt of cost sharing increases conservation practice adoption but not the shares of land allocated to conservation, implying little adverse selection in awards. Cost sharing decreases the share of land allocated to vegetative cover, so that environmental quality improvements from conservation are likely offset to some degree. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved. Source

Gil-Garcia J.R.,Research Center y Docencia Economicas
Information Polity | Year: 2012

Information technologies (IT) can now be considered one of the key components of government administrative reform. The potential is even greater when working across organizational boundaries. Unfortunately, inter-agency collaboration appears to face an even greater number of challenges than similar IT initiatives within a single organization. The challenges include data and technological incompatibility, the lack of institutional incentives to collaborate, and the politics and power struggles around a pervasive silo structure in most governments, among many others. This paper argues that there are clear trends towards greater inter-organizational collaboration, information sharing, and integration, which could lead, in the near future, to what might be called a smart State. The paper starts discussing the promises and challenges that have already been identified for government information sharing and integration initiatives. Then it describes two trends in terms of inter-organizational collaboration and information technologies in government settings. The paper ends by providing reflections about the technical and political feasibility, as well as the social desirability, of an integrated virtual State in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches1 are actively collaborating and sharing information through the use of advanced information technologies, sophisticated coordination mechanisms, shared physical infrastructure, and, potentially, new organizational and institutional arrangements. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Dyer G.A.,Colegio de Mexico | Lopez-Feldman A.,Research Center y Docencia Economicas
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Farmer management of plant germplasm pre-dates crop domestication, but humans' role in crop evolution and diversity remains largely undocumented and often contested. Seemingly inexplicable practices observed throughout agricultural history, such as exchanging or replacing seed, continue to structure crop populations across the developing world. Seed management practices can be construed as events in the life history of crops and management data used to model crop demography, but this requires suitable quantitative data. As a prerequisite to addressing the causes and implications of maize seed management, we describe its patterns of variation across Mexico by drawing from the literature and new analysis. We find that rates of seed replacement, introduction and diffusion differ significantly across regions and altitudinal zones, but interactions among explanatory factors can obscure patterns of variation. The type, source, geographic origin and ownership of seed help explain observed rates. Yet, controlling for the characteristics of germplasm barely reduces interregional differences vastly exceeding variation across elevations. With few exceptions, monotonic altitudinal trends are absent. Causal relationships between management practices and the physical environment could determine farmers' wellbeing and crop conservation in the face of climate change. Scarce and inconsistent data on management nevertheless could prevent an understanding of these relationships. Current conceptions on the management and dynamics of maize diversity are founded on a patchwork of observations in surprisingly few and dissimilar environments. Our estimates of management practices should shed light on differences in maize population dynamics across Mexico. Consistency with previous studies spanning over a decade suggests that common sets of forces are present within large areas, but causal associations remain unknown. The next step in explaining crop diversity should address variation in seed management across space and time simultaneously while identifying farmers' values and motivations as underlying forces. © 2013 Dyer, López-Feldman. Source

Kiewiet De Jonge C.P.,Research Center y Docencia Economicas
Public Opinion Quarterly | Year: 2015

While political campaigns commonly employ clientelistic mobilization tactics during elections in developing countries, studying vote buying with mass surveys has proven difficult since respondents often will not admit to receiving a gift or favor in exchange for their votes. This study explores the degree to which respondents vary in their reporting of the receipt of goods or favors. Analysis of list experiments included in 10 surveys conducted in eight Latin American countries demonstrates the widespread prevalence of underreporting and shows that it is best predicted by three different sources of question sensitivity. First, bias is greater among respondents with higher levels of education, likely due to greater understanding and awareness of democratic norms about vote buying. Second, since vote buying is often stigmatized as resulting from poverty, those who are particularly sensitive to questions about income also prove to be much more likely to edit their answers. Finally, bias is positively associated with the degree to which the goods distributed violate democratic norms, as bias is smallest in countries in which the gifts consist largely of innocuous campaign materials and items such as clothing and food. The results not only point to probable biases in analyses conducted using direct measures of gift dispensation, but also illuminate how social attitudes about vote buying have spread in different countries in Latin America. © 2015 The Author. Source

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