Research Center y Desarrollo

Barcelona, Spain

Research Center y Desarrollo

Barcelona, Spain
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Uriarte I.,Austral University of Chile | Uriarte I.,Research Center y Desarrollo | Espinoza V.,Austral University of Chile | Herrera M.,Austral University of Chile | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2012

Although the mechanism by which temperature modulates the use of reserves and its consequences for organogenesis in octopus species is not yet known, there is evidence that temperature modulates the embryonic growth rate in cephalopods with consequences for hatchling characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature (12, 15, 18 and 21 °C) on the duration of Octopus mimus embryo development and to generate a prediction model. The effects of temperature on size and physiological characteristics of embryos at stage XV were also studied. A third objective was to investigate whether temperature affects the time taken to reach stage XX using physiological time, i.e. degree-days (DD). The time taken to reach stage XV at 21 °C was 24, 58 and 75% shorter than observed in eggs maintained at 18, 15 and 12 °C, respectively. Logarithmic models were obtained for the relationship between embryo stage and age, demonstrating an inverse relationship between environmental temperature and the duration of embryonic development. Embryos maintained at 18 and 21 °C grew faster than those kept at 12 and 15 °C, although that growth rate was accomplished by an inverse relationship between yolk and temperature. The degree-day model suggests that between 128 and 133 DD should be accumulated when embryos are maintained at 15 to 21 °C. As in other invertebrate species the results on oxygen consumption indicate that embryos of O. mimus have a higher sensitivity to temperature than adults. The results suggest that the optimum range of temperatures for these embryos is around 15 to 18 °C. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fernandez E.,Liverpool John Moores University | Fernandez E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Perez-Perez A.,University of Barcelona | Gamba C.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700-6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and Crete seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization. © 2014 Fernández et al.

Ballesteros M.N.,Research Center y Desarrollo | Valenzuela F.,Research Center y Desarrollo | Robles A.E.,Research Center y Desarrollo | Artalejo E.,Research Center y Desarrollo | And 4 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2015

There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35–65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Lara-Guevara A.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Lara-Guevara A.,Valle de México University | Rojas-Rodriguez I.,Technological University of Mexico | Velazquez-Hernandez R.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | And 6 more authors.
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2013

Copper-based composite materials are widely applied in the field of electronics and electrical engineering as highly conductive materials for operation at high temperatures. In this study, copper-based composites were produced by the powder metallurgy and reinforced with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0% vol alumina nanometer sized particles. Powders were mixed by glass ball milling for 6 h at 100 rpm. Samples were compacted at 420 MPa in a steel die and sintered at 900°C for 15 min in an argon chamber. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers micro-hardness, and tensile tests were performed to analyze the influence of the alumina content on the mechanical, structural, and micro-structural properties of the copper-alumina composites that were manufactured by three steps of the powder metallurgy technique. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that during the ball milling, cold compacting, and sintered steps no new crystalline phases were formed. Scanning electron microscopy images providing information related to the alumina layering that restricted the reinforcement mechanism and the expected improvement in the composite mechanical properties. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | University of Bordeaux 1, CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research, Research Center y Desarrollo, University Pompeu Fabra and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Environment international | Year: 2013

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are compounds widely used as flame-retardants, which are of increasing environmental concern due to their persistence, and potential adverse effects. This study had two objectives. First, we assessed if BDE-209 in sediment was bioavailable and bioaccumulated into zebrafish embryos. Secondly, we assessed the potential impact on human and environmental health of bioavailable BDE-209 using human in vitro cell assays and zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish were exposed from 4h to 8days post-fertilization to sediments spiked with 12.5mg/kg of BDE-209. Zebrafish larvae accumulated ten fold more BDE-209 than controls in unspiked sediment after 8days. BDE-209 impacted expression of neurological pathways and altered behavior of larvae, although BDE-209 had no visible affect on thyroid function or motoneuron and neuromast development. Zebrafish data and in silico predictions suggested that BDE-209 would also interact with key human transcription factors and receptors. We therefore tested these predictions using mammalian in vitro assays. BDE-209 activated human aryl hydrocarbon receptor, peroxisome proliferator activating receptors, CF/b-cat, activator protein 1, Oct-MLP, and the estrogen receptor-related alpha (ERR) receptor in cell-based assays. BDE-209 also inhibited human acetylcholinesterase activity. The observation that BDE-209 can be bioaccumulated from contaminated sediment highlights the need to consider this as a potential environmental exposure route. Once accumulated, our data also show that BDE-209 has the potential to cause impacts on both human and environmental health.

Ramirez-Vargas E.,Research Center en Quimica Aplicada | Sanchez-Valdes S.,Research Center en Quimica Aplicada | Parra-Tabla O.,Research Center y Desarrollo | Castaneda-Gutierrez S.,Research Center y Desarrollo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

The combination of different types of organo-modified montmorillonite (MMT) with aluminum hydroxide (aluminum trihydrate-ATH), as a flame retardant system for polyethylene-ethylene vinyl acetate (LDPE/EVA), blends were studied. Five different types of organically modified montmorillonite clays, each with different modifier, were used. The structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy in transmission mode (STEM). The mechanical and rheological properties were also evaluated. The XRD analysis showed a clear displacement of the d001 signal, which indicates a good degree of intercalation, especially for the MMT-I28 and MMT-20, from Nanocor and Southern Clay Products, respectively. The presence of ATH and the compatibilizer did not have any effect on the exfoliation of the studied samples. The thermal stability and flame retardant properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI-ASTM D2863), and flammability tests (Underwriters Laboratory-UL-94). The effect of different compatibilizers on the clay dispersion and exfoliation was studied. The results indicated that the addition of montmorillonite makes it possible to substitute part of the ATH filler content while maintaining the flame retardant requirements. The thermal stability of MMT/ATH-filled LDPE/EVA blends presented a slight increase over the reference ATH-filled LDPE/EVA blend. Compositions with higher clay content (10 wt %) showed better physicochemical properties. The increased stability of the higher clay content compositions results from the greater inorganic residual formation; this material has been reported to impart better performance in flammability tests. The mechanical properties and flame retardancy remained similar to those of the reference compound. The reduced ATH content resulted in lower viscosities and densities, facilitating the processing of the polymer/ATH/clay compounds. Extrusion of these compounds produced a lower pressure in the extrusion head and required reduced electrical power consumption. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Both, cooking and storage, can affect processed meat traits. In this study, six treatments were evaluated: three internal cooking temperatures (72, 75, 78 °C) and two storage temperatures (4 and 8 °C). Mesophilic counts, lactic acid bacteria and color differed (p<0.001). The product heated to 75 °C, 5 minutes of retention, and stored at 4 °C (75 °C - 5 min - 4 °C) was the most stable. Regarding the content of volatile nitrogen bases, none of the treatments reached degradation levels above the established by technical regulations. As the storage time increased, hardness and instrumental adhesiveness also tended to increase, with the 75 °C - 5 min - 4 °C treatment resulting in the highest hardness value. For all the treatments, pH diminished and syneresis increased as the storage time increased. © 2011 Universidad de Antioquia.

PubMed | Research Center y Desarrollo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Planta | Year: 2013

Storage proteins of maize (Zea mays L.) were studied in germinated seeds, as were the proteins of protein bodies isolated from endosperms at different germination times. Major endosperm storage proteins were degraded in a sequential way, glutelin 2 being hydrolysed faster than zein 1. Immunocytochemical labelling of the different protein bodies using the antisera anti-glutelin 2 and anti-zein 1 indicates that the protein bodies were degraded by progressive hydrolysis from their surface. The digestion of glutelin 2 correlated with the disappearance of the protein-body membranes.

PubMed | Research Center y Desarrollo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Planta | Year: 2013

Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) fromZea mays have been immunolocalized in the cell wall of root tip cells using ultrathin sections and antibodies ellicited against the purified protein. The accumulation of mRNA corresponding to this protein was studied using the cDNA probe. Maximum accumulation of the mRNA was found in tissues with a high proportion of dividing cells such as those in the root tip of young maize seedlings and a close relationship with cellular division was also observed in in-vitro cultures. However, the level of the mRNA in elongating tissues was minimal, as shown by studies carried out on the elongation zones of root tips and coleoptiles. The mRNA was induced by stress conditions, particularly by wounding young leaves and coleoptiles. It is concluded that in maize this group of proline-rich cell-wall proteins accumulates during cell division and not during cell elongation or differentiation, and participates in the stress-response mechanisms of the plant.

PubMed | Research Center y Desarrollo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant molecular biology | Year: 2013

Copy DNAs corresponding to a highly repetitive, proline-rich protein from maize have been cloned by differential screening of a coleoptile cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a single repetitive element of carrot extensin (Ser-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro). The related mRNAs have a defined distribution in tissues of the plant and are accumulated mainly in the coleoptile node and root tip. A peptide that corresponds to one of the repetitive elements of the protein has been synthesized and antisera have been obtained in rabbits. These antibodies react against crude preparations of coleoptile cell wall and against polypeptides extracted following the protocols described for the extraction of extensin. From these data it is concluded that the cDNAs correspond to a family of cell wall glycoproteins from maize.

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