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Riondino S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Roselli M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Palmirotta R.,San Raffaele Pisana Research Center | Della-Morte D.,San Raffaele Pisana Research Center | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Obesity-associated diseases account for a large portion of public health challenges. Among obesity-related disorders, a direct and independent relationship has been ascertained for colorectal cancer (CRC). The evidence that adipocyte hypertrophy and excessive adipose tissue accumulation (mainly visceral) can promote pathogenic adipocyte and adipose tissue-related diseases, has led to formulate the concept of "adiposopathy", defined as adipocyte and adipose tissue dysfunction that contributes to metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue can, indeed, be regarded as an important and highly active player of the innate immune response, in which cytokine/ adipokine secretion is responsible for a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages, thus contributing to the systemic chronic low-grade inflammation associated with visceral obesity, which represents favorable niche for tumor development. The adipocyte itself participates as a central mediator of this inflammatory response in obese individuals by secreting hormones, growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines, which are of particular relevance for the pathogenesis of CRC. Among adipocyte-secreted hormones, the most relevant to colorectal tumorigenesis are adiponectin, leptin, resistin and ghrelin. All these molecules have been involved in cell growth and proliferation, as well as tumor angiogenesis and it has been demonstrated that their expression changes from normal colonic mucosa to adenoma and adenocarcinoma, suggesting their involvement in multistep colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings have led to the hypothesis that an unfavorable adipokine profile, with a reduction of those with an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activity, might serve as a prognostic factor in CRC patients and that adipokines or their analogues/antagonists might become useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of CRC. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Ferrelli F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Pastore D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Capuani B.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Lombardo M.F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 22 more authors.
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2015

Diabetic hyperglycaemia causes endothelial dysfunction mainly by impairing endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, hyperglycaemia activates several noxious cellular pathways including apoptosis, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and diminishing Na+–K+ ATPase activity which exacerbate vascular damage. Serum glucocorticoid kinase (SGK)-1, a member of the serine/threonine kinases, plays a pivotal role in regulating NO production through inducible NO synthase activation and other cellular mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective role of SGK-1 against hyperglycaemia in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). We used retrovirus to infect HUVECs with either SGK-1, SGK-1Δ60 (lacking of the N-60 amino acids—increase SGK-1 activity) or SGK-1Δ60KD (kinase-dead constructs). We tested our hypothesis in vitro after high glucose and glucosamine incubation. Increase in SGK-1 expression and activity (SGK-1Δ60) resulted in higher production of NO, inhibition of ROS synthesis and lower apoptosis in endothelial cell after either hyperglycaemia or glucosamine treatments. Moreover, in this study, we showed increased GLUT-1 membrane translocation and Na+−K+ ATPase activity in cell infected with SGK-1Δ60 construct. These results suggest that as in endothelial cells, an increased SGK-1 activity and expression reduces oxidative stress, improves cell survival and restores insulin-mediated NO production after different noxae stimuli. Therefore, SGK-1 may represent a specific target to further develop novel therapeutic options against diabetic vascular disease. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Italia. Source

Ferroni P.,San Raffaele Pisana Research Center | Guadagni F.,San Raffaele Pisana Research Center | Laudisi A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Vergati M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 4 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2014

Background. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has been associated with increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in the general population. VTE incidence significantly increases in cancer patients, especially those undergoing chemotherapy. Despite the evidence that a substantial number of cancer patients have unrecognized renal impairment, as indicated by reduced eGFR in the presence of serum creatinine levels within the reference value, chemotherapy dosage is routinely adjusted for serum creatinine values. Among chemotherapies, platinum-based regimens are associated with the highest rates of VTE. A cohort study was designed to assess the value of pretreatment eGFR in the risk prediction of a first VTE episode in cancer outpatients without previous history of VTE who were scheduled for platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods. Serum creatinine and eGFR were evaluated before the start of standard platinum-based chemotherapy in a cohort of 322 consecutive patients with primary or relapsing/recurrent solid cancers, representative of a general practice population. Results. Patients who experienced a first VTE episode in the course of chemotherapy had lower mean eGFR values compared with patients who remained VTE free. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that eGFR had an independent value for risk prediction of a first VTE episode during treatment, with a 3.15 hazard ratio. Indeed, 14% of patients with reduced eGFR had VTE over 1-year follow-up compared with 6% of patients with normal eGFR values. Conclusion. The results suggest that reductions in eGFR, even in the presence of normal serum creatinine, are associated with an increased VTE risk in cancer outpatients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. Determining eGFR before chemotherapy could represent a simple predictor of VTE, at no additional cost to health care systems. © AlphaMed Press 2014. Source

Lauro D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Pastore D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Capuani B.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Pacifici F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 11 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Senescence is a phenomenon characterized by a progressive decline of body homeostasis. Premature senescence acts when the cellular system is not able to adequately respond to noxious stimuli by synthesis of stressor molecules. Among those, serum-and-glucocorticoidinducible kinase-1 (SGK-1) dramatically increases under typical physiopathological conditions, such as glucocorticoid or mineralcorticoids exposure, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and ischemia. SGK-1 has been implicated in mechanism regulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and DNA damage, which are all leading to a state of accelerating aging. Moreover, SGK-1-sensitive ion channels participate in the regulation of renal Na+/K+ regulation, blood pressure, gastric acid secretion, cardiac action potential, and neuroexcitability. Recently, we demonstrated in endothelial cells as an increase in SGK-1 activity and expression reduces oxidative stress, improves cell survival and restores insulin-mediated nitric oxide production after hyperglycemia. Moreover, we showed as SGK-1 delays the onset of senescence by increasing telomerase activity, significantly decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and by directly interacting with hTERT. Therefore, SGK-1 may represent a specific target to further develop novel therapeutic options against chronic diseases such as diabetes typical of aging. SGK-1 has been also associated with cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease, among other age-related diseases. However, to date, the data available on SGK-1 and aging, are sparse, controversial, and only from C. elegans experimental models. In this review we sought to discuss the possible implication of SGK-1 in mechanisms regulating senescence and age-related diseases. Moreover, we aimed to discuss and identify the possible role of SGK-1 as possible molecular target to counteract and prevent aging. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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