Research Center Principe Felipe

Valencia, Spain

Research Center Principe Felipe

Valencia, Spain
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Duncan R.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Vicent M.J.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2013

The term "polymer therapeutics" was coined to describe polymeric drugs, polymer conjugates of proteins, drugs and aptamers, together with those block copolymer micelles and multicomponent non-viral vectors which contain covalent linkages. These often complex, multicomponent constructs are actually "drugs" and "macromolecular prodrugs" in contrast to drug delivery systems that simply entrap (non-covalently) therapeutic agents. They have also been described as nanomedicines. First polymer-protein conjugates entered routine clinical use in 1990 and a growing number of polymeric drugs/sequestrants and PEGylated proteins/aptamers have since come into the market. Valuable lessons have been learnt over > 3 decades of clinical development, especially in relation to critical product attributes governing safety and efficacy, the validated methods needed for product characterisation. Not least there has been improved understanding of polymer therapeutic-specific biomarkers that will in future enable improved selection of patients for therapy. Advances in synthetic polymer chemistry (including control of 3D architecture), the move towards greater use of biodegradable polymers, polymers delivering combination therapy, increased understanding of polymer therapeutic critical product attributes to guide pharmaceutical development, and advances in understanding of endocytosis and intracellular trafficking pathways in health and disease are opening new opportunities for design and clinical use of polymer-based therapeutics in the decades to come. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Felipo V.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Liver failure affects brain function, leading to neurological and psychiatric alterations; such alterations are referred to as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Early diagnosis of minimal HE reveals an unexpectedly high incidence of mild cognitive impairment and psychomotor slowing in patients with liver cirrhosis-conditions that have serious health, social and economic consequences. The mechanisms responsible for the neurological alterations in HE are beginning to emerge. New therapeutic strategies acting on specific targets in the brain (phosphodiesterase 5, type A GABA receptors, cyclooxygenase and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38) have been shown to restore cognitive and motor function in animal models of chronic HE, and NMDA receptor antagonists have been shown to increase survival in acute liver failure. This article reviews the latest studies aimed at understanding how liver failure affects brain function and potential ways to ameliorate these effects.

Duncan R.,University of Cardiff | Vicent M.J.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2010

N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates containing doxorubicin designed in the late 1970s/early 1980s as anticancer polymer therapeutics were the first synthetic polymer-based anticancer conjugates to enter clinical trial beginning in 1994. Early clinical results were promising, confirming activity in chemotherapy refractory patients and the safety of HPMA copolymers as a new polymer platform in this setting. Subsequent Phase I/II trials have investigated conjugates containing paclitaxel (PNU 166945), camptothecin (PNU 166148) (both failed in clinical trials underlining the importance of rational design), and most recently HPMA-copolymer platinates (AP5280 and then AP5346-ProLindacTM) entered Phase II clinical development. There are a growing array of second generation HPMA copolymer-based systems involving combination therapy, incorporating putative targeting ligands, having an ever more complex architecture, and both drug and protein conjugates are being proposed as novel treatments for diseases other than cancer. Despite their promise, and the success of polymeric drugs and polymer-protein conjugates, no polymer-drug conjugate (HPMA copolymer-based or otherwise) has yet entered routine clinical use. It is timely to reflect on the progress made over the last 30 years, the relative merits of HPMA copolymers as a platform compared to other polymeric carriers, and comment on their future potential as polymer-based nanomedicines into the 21st century in comparison with the many alternative strategies now emerging for creation of nanopharmaceuticals. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Duncan R.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Gaspar R.,University of Lisbon
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Figure Persented: Depending on the context, nanotechnologies developed as nanomedicines (nanosized therapeutics and imaging agents) are presented as either a remarkable technological revolution already capable of delivering new diagnostics, treatments for unmanageable diseases, and opportunities for tissue repair or highly dangerous nanoparticles, nanorobots, or nanoelectronic devices that will wreak havoc in the body. The truth lies firmly between these two extremes. Rational design of "nanomedicines" began almost half a century ago, and >40 products have completed the complex journey from lab to routine clinical use. Here we critically review both nanomedicines in clinical use and emerging nanosized drugs, drug delivery systems, imaging agents, and theranostics with unique properties that promise much for the future. Key factors relevant to the design of practical nanomedicines and the regulatory mechanisms designed to ensure safe and timely realization of healthcare benefits are discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Duncan R.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A growing number of polymer therapeutics have entered routine clinical use as nano-sized medicines. Early products were developed as anticancer agents, but treatments for a range of diseases and different routes of administration have followed - recently the PEGylated-anti-TNF Fab Cimzia® for rheumatoid arthritis and the PEG-aptamer Macugen® for age related macular degeneration. New polymer therapeutic concepts continue to emerge with a growing number of conjugates entering clinical development, for example PEGylated-aptamers and a polymer-based siRNA delivery system. 'Hot' topics of the past 2 years include; emerging issues relating to polymer safety, the increasing use of biodegradable polymers, design of technologies for combination therapy, potential biomarkers for patient individualisation of treatment and Regulatory challenges for 'follow-on/generic' polymer therapeutics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Duncan R.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Duncan R.,University of Greenwich
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

At the time of the first issue of the Journal of Controlled Release (JCR), polymeric drugs, polymer-drug and protein conjugates and block copolymer micelles carrying bound drugs, i.e. polymer therapeutics, were still regarded as scientific curiosities with little or no prospect of generating practical to use medicines. How this perception has changed. Many major Pharma now have R&D programmes in this area and in 2013 two polymer therapeutics, Copaxone® and Neulasta®, are featured in the Top 10 US pharmaceutical sales list. Although there are a growing number of marketed products (e.g. PEGylated proteins, a PEG-aptamer and oral polymeric sequestrants), and the first follow-on (generic products) are emerging, the first polymer-drug conjugates and block copolymer micelle products (as covalent conjugates) have yet to enter routine clinical use. Industrial familiarity and recent advances in the underpinning scientific disciplines will no doubt accelerate the transfer of polymer therapeutics into clinically useful medicines and imaging agents. This short personal perspective reflects on the current status of polymer therapeutics and the future opportunities to improve their successful translation. It adds to recent and historical reviews that comprehensively document the evolution of the field since JCR was born. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Fustero S.,University of Valencia | Fustero S.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Sanchez-Rosello M.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Barrio P.,University of Valencia | Simon-Fuentes A.,University of Valencia
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Progress made in the preparation of substituted pyrazoles from 2000 to mid-2010 both in solution and on solid phase is presented. The search for new and efficient procedures for the synthesis of pyrazole derivatives has experienced an unprecedented growth during this period. One-pot procedures and the use of new reaction conditions have made it possible to overcome limitations such as the preparation of the starting materials or the lack of regioselectivity in the synthesis of substituted pyrazoles. The Michael-type addition of N-monosubstituted hydrazones to nitroolefins, reported for the first time in 2006, has emerged as a versatile method for the regioselective synthesis of a plethora of alkyl-, aryl-, and heteroaryl-substituted pyrazoles. Stille, Sonogashira, Negishi, and Heck C-C cross-coupling reactions have been applied to the regioselective introduction of alkenyl, alkynyl, acyl, and (het)aryl substituents at the C-3, C-4, and C-5 positions of prepared pyrazoles bearing adequate heteroatoms containing functionalities.

Sebastian-Leon P.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2013

Signaling pathways constitute a valuable source of information that allows interpreting the way in which alterations in gene activities affect to particular cell functionalities. There are web tools available that allow viewing and editing pathways, as well as representing experimental data on them. However, few methods aimed to identify the signaling circuits, within a pathway, associated to the biological problem studied exist and none of them provide a convenient graphical web interface. We present PATHiWAYS, a web-based signaling pathway visualization system that infers changes in signaling that affect cell functionality from the measurements of gene expression values in typical expression microarray case-control experiments. A simple probabilistic model of the pathway is used to estimate the probabilities for signal transmission from any receptor to any final effector molecule (taking into account the pathway topology) using for this the individual probabilities of gene product presence/absence inferred from gene expression values. Significant changes in these probabilities allow linking different cell functionalities triggered by the pathway to the biological problem studied. PATHiWAYS is available at:

Medina I.,Research Center Principe Felipe
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2013

Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository ( Genome Maps is available at:

Research Center Principe Felipe | Date: 2011-10-03

The present invention provides methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating tumors.

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