Ghislat G.,Research Center Principe |
Knecht E.,Research Center Principe
Communicative and Integrative Biology | Year: 2012
Autophagy is a membrane trafficking pathway responsible for the breakdown of unwanted intracellular materials and crucial for the cell healthiness and survival. In the autophagic flux, various dynamic membrane rearrangements occurs starting with the elongation of the phagophore and its closure to build an autophagosome and ending with its fusion with late endosomes and lysosomes to form an autolysosome. Although Ca2+ is a well established regulator of membrane fusion events, little is known about its role in these processes during autophagy. Recent studies, based on proteomic analyses of lysosomal membranes, have provided new insights into this field of study. Thus, the levels on lysosomal membranes of annexin A1, annexin A5 and copine 1, three proteins that bind to phospholipid membranes in a Ca2+-dependent manner, increased under nutrient deprivation, a condition that promotes autophagic degradation. In addition, two different studies showed that annexin A5 and annexin A1 are involved in autophagosome maturation. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the fusion of autophagosomes with endosomes and lysosomes could be regulated by these three proteins and Ca2+. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.
Fustero S.,University of Valencia |
Fustero S.,Research Center Principe |
Barrio P.,University of Valencia |
Barrio P.,Research Center Principe |
And 2 more authors.
Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements | Year: 2013
The application of allylic sulphoxides and, particularly, the chiral amine reagent tert-butanesulphinamide has been extended to three different tandem processes. The condensation of (R)-(+)-allyl p-tolyl sulphoxide, fluorinated nitriles and alkyl propiolates led to a new family of enantiomerically pure fluorine-containing 1,4-dihydropyridines. A diastereoselective nucleophilic addition of fluorinated nucleophiles onto (R)-(tert-butanesulphinyl) imines, followed by an intramolecular aza-Michael reaction gave rise to either fluorinated isoindolines or 3-substituted indanones in a stereoselective manner. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.