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Martin-Santafe M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Martin-Santafe M.,Research Center perimentacion En Truficultura Of La Diputacion Of Huesca | Sanchez S.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Batlle A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Forest Systems | Year: 2014

Aim of study: In recent years an increase in pests and diseases associated with truffle plantations has been detected in Spain. The appearance of tumor malformations in trunks and branches of Quercus ilex L. must be highlighted. These bumps have expanded dramatically since the increase in the number and density of truffle plantations. This pathology is not only found in plantations, but also in forests, and in trees of all ages. Area of study: the eastern mountains and the truffle plantations of the Iberian Peninsula. Material and methods: Positive results were obtained by using two types of PCR: Real-Time PCR and nested-PCR. They were carried out with primers that amplified 16S ribosomal gene sequences that are common to all known phytoplasmas. Main result: The disease manifests itself as an irregular thickening in branches of any age and in the trunk that results in the woody tissue cracking open, forming wounds. The affected branches usually undergo necrosis and in case of affecting the trunk, the tree will eventually die. After an extensive literature review and several failed attempts to isolate fungal and bacterial species from these tumors and wounds, the disease-causing organism has been identified as a Candidatus Phytoplasma. Research highlights: The appearance of this disease may endanger the profitability of an a priori profitable crop. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the organism, and knowing that no phytosanitary treatment is able to control phytoplasmas, future works should be directed towards identifying the transmitter in order to control the disease.

Andres-Alpuente A.,Institute Formacion Profesional Especifica Movera | Sanchez S.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Martin M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Martin M.,Research Center perimentacion En Truficultura Of La Diputacion Of Huesca | And 2 more authors.
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2014

The quality of seedlings colonized by Tuber melanosporum is one of the main factors that contributes to the success or failure of a truffle crop. Truffle cultivation has quickly grown in European countries and elsewhere, so a commonly shared seedling evaluation method is needed. Five evaluation methods are currently published in the literature: three are used in Spain and two in France and Italy. Although all estimate the percentage colonization by T. melanosporum mycorrhizae, they do it in different ways. Two methods also estimate total number of mycorrhizae per seedling. Most are destructive. In this work, ten batches of holm oak seedlings inoculated with T. melanosporum from two different nurseries were evaluated by means of the five methods noted above. Some similarity was detected between the percentages of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae estimated by each method but not in their ability to assess the suitability of each batch. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each method and suggest approaches to reach consensus within the truffle culture industry for certifying mycorrhizal colonization by T. melanosporum and seedling quality. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sanchez S.,University of Zaragoza | De Miguel A.M.,University of Navarra | Saez R.,INTIA | Martin-Santafe M.,University of Zaragoza | And 5 more authors.
ITEA Informacion Tecnica Economica Agraria | Year: 2016

Summer truffle (Tuber aestivum, including Tuber uncinatum) is a species of great economic and social value. Wild summer truffles are produced all over Europe, North Africa and part of the Middle East. This species has been underutilized in the Iberian Peninsula due to ability of certain areas to cultivate species of greater economic value, such as the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). However, the summer truffle is an alternative species for areas where the black truffle is not well adapted. In this paper, the distribution and ecology of T. aestivum, the current situation and the future prospects of this crop in the Iberian Peninsula is reviewed. Summer truffle is a growing crop, well adapted in greater ecological and geographical areas than black truffle. However, it is still necessary to carry out further efforts to publicize it to both growers and consumers in Spain and to spread technical aspects of its management. © 2016, Asociacion Interprofesional para el Desarrollo Agrario. All Rights Reserved.

Sanchez S.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Gomez E.,Research Center perimentacion En Truficultura Of La Diputacion Of Huesca | Martin M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Martin M.,Research Center perimentacion En Truficultura Of La Diputacion Of Huesca | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2014

Sphaerosporella brunnea is a pioneer and opportunist ectomycorrhizal species, and the most common fungal competitor in nurseries producing plants mycorrhized with Tuber species. Our objective was to learn more about its life cycle as the first step to manage its presence in greenhouses. Conidiation and formation of resting spore-like structures were found to be triggered by aeration and to be highest on CMA medium. In pot experiments S. brunnea was able to form ectomycorrhizas and ascocarps rapidly, in 2 and 3 months respectively, if substratum moisture was high. Both mycelia and conidiospores were effective sources of inoculum for mycorrhization. This species seems to be homothallic as apothecia have been obtained after inoculations with single monospore isolates. Propagation by mitospores and homothallism are poorly documented in ECM fungi, therefore these results may be of fundamental interest beyond the question of greenhouse management. © 2014.

Sanchez S.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Agreda T.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Agueda B.,Research Center Forestal Of Valonsadero | Martin M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | And 3 more authors.
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2014

Owners of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations are concerned about the persistence of its mycorrhizas and mycelium in the soil, especially until the appearance of the "truffle burn" areas and the triggering of sporocarp production, at least 5-7 years after planting truffle-inoculated seedlings. During this period, the farmer does not know whether his management is promoting black truffle development. To study the presence and abundance of T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizas in plantations, two sampling methods, direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection, are compared by analyzing 48 evergreen oak trees (Quercus ilex) inoculated with truffle. Those trees are grouped by age (<6, 6-9, >9 years old) and presence or absence of truffle production. T. melanosporum was present in 46 out of the 48 studied trees, and its ectomycorrhizas appeared in 65 % of the ectomycorrhizal tips. Its abundance is significantly higher with productive trees and young trees. Direct sampling of root tips and soil core collection were equally effective in detecting this species, although soil core collection proved a better method to also evaluate ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity. To detect the presence of T. melanosporum in a given plantation, three samples suffice, with a single sample per random tree. Although the presence of mycorrhizas is not a sure sign of the future success of a black truffle plantation, its absence influences managers as to whether to continue culturing truffles in a plantation. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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