Valmontone, Italy
Valmontone, Italy

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Bozzano F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bozzano F.,Research Center on Prevention | Cipriani I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Mazzanti P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2014

Over the last decades, time-of-failure semi-empirical prediction functions have been developed and applied to different landslides with mixed results. In this study, a field experiment was carried out to calibrate these functions with the simultaneous consideration of small-size landslides and landslides that occur on slopes modified by human activities. Four years of continuous monitoring using an integrated platform consisting of both traditional sensors (i.e., inclinometers, piezometers, load cells, topographic measurement) and innovative remote-sensing equipment (i.e., Terrestrial SAR Interferometer) resulted in the collection of a notably large amount of data. Several landslides affecting different slopes (i.e., cut slopes, cut slopes covered by spritz-beton and slopes stabilised by anchored bulkheads) were observed as part of the experiment, thus facilitating the inference of detailed information for the pre-failure behaviour. Nine landslides were back-analysed, thus allowing for calibration of the failure prediction functions for different types of slopes. From these observations, it was found that events occurring on slopes modified by human interventions could be effectively predicted using the Voight function if suitable parameters are used. As a general remark, the landslides that originate from cut slopes in natural terrain behave similar to large landslides reported in the literature (similar values of A and α) while landslides that originate from cut slopes covered by spritz beton and slopes stabilised by anchored bulkheads show α values that are significantly lower and A values that are significantly higher than those of landslides on natural terrains. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mazzanti P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bozzano F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bozzano F.,Research Center on Prevention | Cipriani I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
Landslides | Year: 2014

Ten small rock slides (with a volume ranging from 101 to 103 m3) on a slope affected by working activities were detected, located, and timed using pictures collected by an automatic camera during 40 months of continuous monitoring with terrestrial SAR interferometry (TInSAR). These landslides were analyzed in detail by examining their pre-failure time series of displacement inferred from high-sampling frequency (approximately 5 min) TInSAR monitoring. In most of these cases, a typical creep behavior was observed with the displacement starting 370 to 12 h before the collapse. Additionally, an evident acceleration decrease of the displacement a few hours before the failure was observed in some rock/debris slides, thus suggesting the possibility of a mechanical feature of the slope that differs from the classical creep theory. The efficacy of the linear Fukuzono approach for the prediction of time of failure was tested by back-analyzing the ten landslides. Furthermore, a modified Fukuzono approach named average data Fukuzono (ADF) was implemented and applied to our dataset. Such an approach is able to improve forecasting effectiveness by reducing the error due to anomalies in the time series of displacement, like the acceleration decrease before failure. A prediction with a temporal accuracy of at least 2 h was obtained for all the analyzed rock/debris slides. © 2014, The Author(s).


Bozzano F.,Research Center on Prevention | Bozzano F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Cipriani I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Mazzanti P.,Research Center on Prevention | And 3 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2011

Landslides interacting with large infrastructures represent a major problem for the economy, society as a whole, and the safety of workers. Continuous monitoring for 23 months using an integrated platform with a ground-based SAR interferometer (GB-InSAR), a weather station, and an automatic camera gave us the opportunity to analyze the response of an unstable slope to the different phases of work. The deformational behavior of both the natural slope and the man-made structures was recorded and interpreted in relation to the working stages and the rainfall conditions during the whole monitoring period. A typical pattern of displacement was identified for shallow landslides, debris produced by the excavation and gabions, metallic walls, and anchored bulkheads. Furthermore, insights into the dynamics and behavior of the slope and the man-made structures that interact with the landslide were obtained. Extreme rainfall is the main trigger of shallow landslides and gabion deformations, while anchored bulkheads are less influenced by rainfalls. Movement of debris that is produced by excavations and temporary metallic barrier deformation are closely related to each other. The herein proposed monitoring platform is very efficient in monitoring unstable slopes that are affected by human activities. Moreover, the recorded patterns of displacement in the slope and the man-made structures can be used as reference data for similar studies and engineering designs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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