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Oliveira A.F.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Rossi A.O.,Sao Paulo State University | Silva L.F.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Lau M.C.,Sao Paulo State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethology | Year: 2010

The mission of defining animal welfare indicators is methodologically difficult, limited, and possibly impossible. A promising alternative, however, to evaluate suitable environmental conditions is the assessment of play behaviour. In the present review, we summarise the general aspects of play behaviour in nonhuman animals and propose its use as a potential indicator of animal welfare. Play behaviour probably occurs in most vertebrates and some invertebrates, but predominately in mammals. It is also more frequent in young males and is associated with the environmental context in which animals find themselves. Animals play if they are healthy and well-fed, but not if they are under stressful conditions or if they are in a stressful state. We can therefore use the prevalence of play behaviour as an indicator of suitable environmental conditions, considering the specificity associated with the above-mentioned modifying factors. © Japan Ethological Society and Springer 2009. Source


Giaquinto P.C.,Research Center on Animal Welfare | Giaquinto P.C.,Paulista University | Giaquinto P.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Barreto R.E.,Research Center on Animal Welfare | And 10 more authors.
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2015

Bile acids are potent olfactory and gustatory stimulants for fish. Electro-olfactogram recording was used to test whether the olfactory epithelium of pintado catfish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans is specifically sensitive to bile acids, some of which have been hypothesized to function as pheromones. Five out of 30 bile acids that had been pre-screened for olfactory activity in fish were selected. Cross-adaptation experiments demonstrated that sensitivity to bile acids is attributable to at least 3 independent classes of olfactory receptor sites. The taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCD) were the most potent compounds. By using avoidance/preference tests, we found that P. corruscans prefers water containing TCA. Bile acids are discriminated by olfactory epithelium of pintado, supporting that these compounds could function as pheromones. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia. Source

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