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Michalska M.,University of Wurzburg | MacHtoub L.,Innsbruck Medical University | Manthey H.D.,University of Wurzburg | Bauer E.,Universitatsklinik Wurzburg | And 9 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE-: Noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis remains challenging in clinical applications. Here, we applied noninvasive molecular imaging to detect vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. METHODS AND RESULTS-: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles functionalized with (P03011) or without (P3007) vascular cell adhesion molecule-1-binding peptide were visualized by ultra high-field (17.6 T) magnetic resonance. Injection of P03011 resulted in a marked signal loss in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a Western diet for 8 and 26 weeks in vivo and ex vivo, compared with preinjection measurements, P3007-injected mice, and P03011-or P3007-injected age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Histological analyses revealed iron accumulations in the intima, in colocalization with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1-expressing macrophages and endothelial cells. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy demonstrated iron signals in the intima and media of the aortic root in the P03011-injected but not untreated apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, localized to macrophages, luminal endothelial-like cells, and medial regions containing smooth muscle cells. Electron microscopy confirmed iron particles enclosed in endothelial cells and in the vicinity of smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSION-: Using a combination of innovative imaging modalities, in this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying P03011 as a contrast agent for imaging of atherosclerosis. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Seiberlich N.,University Hospitals of Cleveland | Lee G.,University Hospitals of Cleveland | Ehses P.,Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria | Duerk J.L.,University Hospitals of Cleveland | And 4 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Previous work has shown that the use of radial GRAPPA for the reconstruction of undersampled real-time free-breathing cardiac data allows for frame rates of up to 30 images/s. It is well known that the spiral trajectory offers a higher scan efficiency compared to radial trajectories. For this reason, we have developed a novel through-time spiral GRAPPA method and demonstrate its application to real-time cardiac imaging. By moving from the radial trajectory to the spiral trajectory, the temporal resolution can be further improved at lower acceleration factors compared to radial GRAPPA. In addition, the image quality is improved compared to those generated using the radial trajectory due to the lower acceleration factor. Here, we show that 2D frame rates of up to 56 images/s can be achieved using this parallel imaging method with the spiral trajectory. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Fuchs J.,University of Wurzburg | Neuberger T.,Pennsylvania State University | Rolletschek H.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Schiebold S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | And 7 more authors.
Plant Physiology

While often thought of as a smoking drug, tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is now considered as a plant of choice for molecular farming and biofuel production. Here, we describe a noninvasive means of deriving both the distribution of lipid and the microtopology of the submillimeter tobacco seed, founded on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. Our platform enables counting of seeds inside the intact tobacco capsule to measure seed sizes, to model the seed interior in three dimensions, to quantify the lipid content, and to visualize lipid gradients. Hundreds of seeds can be simultaneously imaged at an isotropic resolution of 25 mm, sufficient to assess each individual seed. The relative contributions of the embryo and the endosperm to both seed size and total lipid content could be assessed. The extension of the platform to a range of wild and cultivated Nicotiana species demonstrated certain evolutionary trends in both seed topology and pattern of lipid storage. The NMR analysis of transgenic tobacco plants with seed-specific ectopic expression of the plastidial phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator, displayed a trade off between seed size and oil concentration. The NMR-based assay of seed lipid content and topology has a number of potential applications, in particular providing a means to test and optimize transgenic strategies aimed at the manipulation of seed size, seed number, and lipid content in tobacco and other species with submillimeter seeds. Source

Heismann B.,Siemens AG | Heismann B.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Ott M.,Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria | Grodzki D.,Siemens AG
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

Purpose: Clinical MRI patients typically experience elevated acoustic noise levels of 80-110 dB(A). In this study, standard clinical turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE) sequences were optimized for reduced acoustic noise at preserved diagnostic image quality. Methods: The physical sources of acoustic noise generation in an MRI gradient coil were analyzed. A sequence conversion algorithm was derived that optimized the gradient time scheme for an arbitrary MRI sequence, preserving the governing spin physics. The algorithm was applied to generate "quiet" versions of standard clinical TSE and GRE sequences. Results: The first volunteer images indicated that contrast-to-noise ratio and perceived diagnostic image quality remained on the same level for the algorithmic optimization. Additional careful TSE- and GRE-specific protocol adaptions yielded total acoustic noise reductions of up to 14.4 dB(A) for the TSE and up to 16.8 dB(A) for the GRE. Conclusion: A physical sound pressure reduction of 81% (TSE) and 86% (GRE) for MRI patients was achieved. The results can be used to render MRI scans more patient-friendly in clinical practice, particularly for patients who are young, scared, or elderly. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hahn T.,University of Wurzburg | Heinzel S.,University of Wurzburg | Dresler T.,University of Wurzburg | Plichta M.M.,University of Wurzburg | And 8 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping

The impact of individual differences on human reward processing has been a focus of research in recent years, particularly, as they are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases including addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Studies exploring the neural basis of individual differences in reward sensitivity have consistently implicated the ventral striatum (VS) as a core component of the human reward system. However, the mechanisms of dopaminergic neurotransmission underlying ventral striatal activation as well as trait reward sensitivity remain speculative. We addressed this issue by investigating the triadic interplay between VS reactivity during reward anticipation using functional magnetic resonance imaging, trait reward sensitivity, and dopamine (DA) transporter genotype (40-bp 3'VNTR of DAT, SLC6A3) affecting synaptic DA neurotransmission. Our results show that DAT variation moderates the association between VS-reactivity and trait reward sensitivity. Specifically, homozygote carriers of the DAT 10-repeat allele exhibit a strong positive correlation between reward sensitivity and reward-related VS activity whereas this relationship is absent in the DAT 9-repeat allele carriers. We discuss the possibility that this moderation of VS-trait relation might arise from DAT-dependent differences in DA availability affecting synaptic plasticity within the VS. Generally, studying the impact of dopaminergic gene variations on the relation between reward-related brain activity and trait reward sensitivity might facilitate the investigation of complex mechanisms underlying disorders linked to dysregulation of DA neurotransmission. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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