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Badajoz, Spain

Alarcon M.,Research Center La Orden | Lloret P.G.,University of Extremadura | Martin-Partido G.,University of Extremadura | Salguero J.,University of Extremadura
Journal of Plant Physiology

The initiation of lateral roots (LRs) has generally been viewed as a reactivation of proliferative activity in pericycle cells that are committed to initiate primordia. However, it is also possible that pericycle founder cells that initiate LRs never cease proliferative activity but rather are displaced to the most distal root zones while undertaking successive stages of LR initiation. In this study, we tested these two alternative hypotheses by examining the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of meristematic root cells of Zea mays. According to the values for the length of the cell cycle and values for cell displacement along the maize root, our results strongly suggest that pericycle cells that initiate LR primordia ceased proliferative activity upon exiting the meristematic zone. This finding is supported by the existence of a root zone between 4 and 20 mm from the root cap junction, in which neither mitotic cells nor labelled nuclei were observed in phloem pericycle cells. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Victoria Alarcon M.,Research Center La Orden | Lloret P.G.,University of Extremadura | Salguero J.,University of Extremadura

The auxin-ethylene interaction in regulating root elongation and radial expansion was analysed through the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylic acid (ACC) and the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). NAA and ACC, in the concentration range of 0.01-0.1 μmol/L and 1-5 μmol/L, respectively, inhibited root elongation and increased root diameter in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation was increased by ethylene applied at low as well as high concentrations. Auxin-induced radial expansion was also enhanced by ethylene, although this effect depended on the level of auxin applied. In the presence of very low exogenous auxin (0.01 μmol/L NAA), ethylene stimulated radial growth at both low and high levels (1-5 μmol/L ACC), whereas the effect of higher auxin concentrations (>0.025 μmol/L NAA) was only enhanced by high ethylene production (5 μmol/L ACC). Interaction was analysed by two-way ANOVA; the results showed that both the effect of each hormone and the interactions responsible for controlling elongation and radial expansion were concentration-dependent. The relative effects of auxin and ethylene on the two growth parameters were also analysed; they showed different types of behaviour. In summary, the results obtained suggest that auxin is the main hormone involved in regulating root growth but that ethylene may modulate its effects. Our research also suggests that root elongation and radial expansion may be independently regulated despite being closely related. Source

Balas F.C.,Research Center La Orden | Osuna M.D.,Research Center La Orden | Dominguez G.,Research Center La Orden | Perez-Gragera F.,Research Center La Orden | Lopez-Corrales M.,Research Center La Orden
Tree Genetics and Genomes

Ex situ germ plasm collections of woody crops are necessary to ensure the optimal use of plant genetic resources. The fig tree (Ficus carica L.) germ plasm bank, consisting of 229 accessions, is located in Centro de Investigación 'La Orden'. Despite great progress in conservation, ex situ collections face size and organization problems. Core collections obtained from structured samples of bigger collections are a useful tool to improve germ plasm management. In this work, we used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to establish a core collection in this underutilised Mediterranean fruit tree species. Four approaches have been carried out (random sampling, maximization, simulated annealing and stepwise clustering) to determine the best method to develop a core collection in this woody plant. The genetic diversity obtained with each subset was compared with that of the complete collection. It was found that the most efficient way to achieve the maximum diversity was the maximization strategy, which, with 30 accessions, recovers all the SSR alleles and does not show significant differences in allele frequency distribution in any of the loci or in the variability parameters (H O, H E) between the whole and core collections. Thus, this core collection, a representative of most fig diversity conserved in the germ plasm bank, could be used as a basis for plant material exchange among researchers and breeders. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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